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An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009

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  1. An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009 Research and Statistics Division Department of Justice Canada October 2013

  2. The Costs of Violent Victimization Why now? • Large gap in Canadian research / Canadian research out of date • Interest in costing research from a wide range of stakeholders (international, federal/provincial/territorial, NGOs) • The importance of using a common unit of measurement to include a wide diversity of stakeholders in the conversation on spousal violence

  3. Current Work on Costing • Firearm-related crimes in Canada; victim costs disaggregated by gender • Spousal violence (ex and current spousal abuse); disaggregated by gender • Violent victimization – homicide, sexual assault, assault, robbery, criminal harassment; disaggregated by gender • Administration of Justice Offences (criminal justice system) • Youth Criminal Justice System • Polices costs per incident by offence type (in progress) • Victimization of children and youth (in progress)

  4. External Review • Reviewers – expertise in costing and/or gender expertise • Dr. Rick Brown, Australian Institute of Criminology • Professor Michael Burns, Memorial University • Dr. Brent Davis, Australian Institute of Criminology • Professor Matthew Gray, Australian National University • Professor Holly Johnson, University of Ottawa • Professor Maryse Rinfret-Raynor, University of Quebec at Montreal • Dr. Adam Tomison, Australian Institute of Criminology • Professor Sylvia Walby, University of Lancaster • Methodology reviewed – written comments and responses, conference calls • Draft report reviewed – written comments and responses, conference calls

  5. Impact Categories • Impact borne by Justice System • Criminal Justice System • Civil Justice System • Impact borne by Primary Victims • Health Care • Productivity Losses • Intangible Costs • Impact borne by Other Individuals and Systems • Funeral Services • Other People Harmed/Threatened • Loss to Employers • Negative Impact on Child Witnesses • Mental Health Care • Other Personal Costs • Loss of Affection/Enjoyment to Family Members • Social Services • Other Government Expenditures

  6. Data Sources • 2009 General Social Survey, Cycle 23 • Uniform Crime Reporting Survey 2 • Examples of other major data sources: • Police Administration Survey • Adult Criminal Court Survey • Court Personnel and Expenditure Survey (CPES) • Adult Correctional Services Survey (ACS) and the Integrated Correctional Services Survey (ICS) • National Ambulatory Care Reporting System • Discharge Abstract Database • National Physician Database • Government finance reports • Existing literature, studies and government reports

  7. Key Challenges • Lack of data/information • Lack of access to data • Limitations of Surveys, including General Social Survey • Limitations of small, non-representative studies

  8. Number of Incidents and Victims – The Attrition Pyramid

  9. Number of Victims by Gender • Police-Reported Data, UCR2 2009 • 81.2% female victims (38,082) • 18.8% male victims (8,836) • Self-Reported Data, GSS 2009 • Ex-spousal violence 68,893 female victims 34,804 male victims • Current spousal violence 111,000 female victims 121,000 male victims • Number of Victims of Spousal Violence in Canada 2009, by gender

  10. Impact borne by Criminal Justice System • Total criminal justice system costs were $320 million, where policing services accounted for the majority of total expenditures (46%). • Spousal violence involving female victims accounted for almost 85% of the criminal justice system expenditures.

  11. Impact borne by Civil Justice System • The total civil justice system costs were $225 million, where 81% were attributed to spousal violence against females. • Civil protection orders: $2,272,200 • About 6,378 applications for restraining/protection orders where 4,983 were granted. • Court/Legal aid costs for divorce and separation: $40,941,889 • It is estimated that $12,761,670 and $10,814,975 were pertaining to legal aid for divorce and other family breakdown, respectively, which were primarily caused by spousal violence. • Total civil court costs for the 3,042 contested divorce cases were $3,495,798. • Family service expenditures: $13,869,446. • Child protection systems: $181,903,737 • Costs of providing foster care and formal kinship: $46,121,400. • Costs associated with regular family visits and assessments for children with no placement or children with an informal agreement with a relative: $116,032,512. • Investigation costs for cases of exposure to spousal violence: $19,749,825,

  12. Impact borne by Primary Victims • Total Tangible Victim Costs: $525 million • Total Intangible Victim Costs: $5,460 million • Tangible Victim Costs by Gender and Type of Cost, $Million

  13. Impact borne by Third Parties • Total third-party costs: $889,881,609 • About 77.7% were due to spousal violence against females • Negative impacts on children exposed to spousal violence accounted for 26.4% ($235M) of third-party costs • Negative impacts considered include: hyperactivity, emotional disorders, physical aggression, and delinquent acts against property • Costs include: medical costs, missed school days, lost future income, and damaged and stolen property • The remaining 73.6% ($655M) of the costs were incurred by family members, other individuals, employers, and governments • Social services: $410,595,799 • Other government expenditures: $116,260,000 • Losses to employers: $68,541,415 • Loss of affection to family members: $37,170,000 • Other individuals harmed during the incidents: $11,246,120 • Funeral expenses: $1,449,240

  14. Summary 1: Who is bearing the IMPACTS? • Total estimated costs of spousal violence in Canada: • Justice System: $545 million • Primary Victims: $5,985 million • Third-Party: $890 million • About 74.1% of the total costs attributable to intangible costs for primary victims and family members • About 65.2% of costs attributable to spousal violence against females

  15. Summary 2: Who is paying the COSTS? • Total tangible costs (excluding negative impact on children exposed to spousal violence) -- actual financial transactions were made • For the tangible costs, 79.2% attributable to spousal violence against females • Tangible Costs by Who Pays, 2009 ($ million)

  16. Questions? To access the full report of An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009, please visit: http://canada.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/fv-vf/rr12_7/rr12_7.pdf The Team Ting Zhang, PhD Josh Hoddenbagh, MA Susan McDonald, LLB, PhD Katie Scrim, BA Ting Zhang, PhD Methodologist Research and Statistics Division Department of Justice Canada 284 Wellington, 6th floor Ottawa, ON K1A 0H8 Tel: (613) 957-2811 Email: tzhang@justice.gc.ca