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Teaching Grammar and Language Functions. MA in English Language Teaching NYME BTK 2011 Foki Lívia. Definitions.

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teaching grammar and language functions

Teaching Grammar and Language Functions

MA in English Language Teaching

NYME BTK

2011

Foki Lívia

definitions
Definitions

“At its heart, then, grammar consists of two fundamental ingredients – syntaxand morphology – and together they help us to identify grammatical forms which serve to enhance and sharpen the expression of meaning.”

Batstone, Product and process: Grammar in the second language classroom. In Bygate, M., Tonkyn, A. and Williams, E. (eds.) Grammar and the Language Teacher. pp. 224-236. London: Prentice Hall. 1994b:4

definitions1
Definitions

“Grammar is a set of rules that define how words are combined or changed to form acceptable units of meaningwithin language.”

Ur, A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP. 1996:87

definitions2
Definitions

“…grammar(ing) is one of the dynamic linguistic processesof pattern formulation in language, which can be used by humans for making meaning in context-appropriate ways.”

Larsen-Freeman, Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring. Boston: Thomson, Heinle. 2003:142

purpose of grammar teaching
Purpose of grammar teaching

To enable learners to use linguistic forms

accurately

meaningfully

appropriately

to achieve communicative competence

communicative competence
Communicative Competence

Chomsky’s competence:

The native speaker's perfect knowledge of the grammatical rules, lexis and the sound system knowing what is grammatically correct.

Hymes communicative competence

The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language in order to form grammatically correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom.

communicative competence1
Communicative Competence

Canale and Swain

Linguistic

Sociolinguistic

Discourse

Strategic

theories and approaches related to grammar teaching
Theories and approaches related to grammar teaching

The Grammar Translation Method

“grammar translation approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. It hence views language learning as consisting of little more than memorizing rules and facts in order to understand and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language” (Richards and Rogers,1986:3).

theories and approaches related to grammar teaching1
Theories and approaches related to grammar teaching

The AudiolingualMethod

  • Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills, grammar explanation is not given.
  • Inductive explanation of grammar is preferred.
  • Structures are taught one at a time and then sequenced based on contrastive analysis
theories and approaches related to grammar teaching2
Theories and approaches related to grammar teaching

The Communicative Approach

  • Distinction is made between acquisition and learning.
  • Language should be learnt by experiencing it meaningfully as a tool for communication.
  • Problems occur in contexts where the availability of the communicative use of the language is limited, and exams require a high level of grammatical accuracy.
processes involved in grammar teaching and learning
Processes involved in grammar teaching and learning
  • Comprehensible input

The learner progresses along a natural order when receiving input that is one step beyond the learner’s current stage of linguistic competence (i+1) (Krashen's Input Hypothesis)

  • Consciousness-raising/awareness raising

An approach to the teaching of grammar in which instruction is viewed as a way of raising the learner’s awareness of grammatical features of the language. This approach is contrasted with traditional approaches to the teaching of grammar, in which the goal is to instill correct grammatical patterns and habits directly.

processes involved in grammar teaching and learning1
Processes involved in grammar teaching and learning
  • Noticing

conscious intake of new language

noticing is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge: conscious intake of new language

noticing the form is facilitated when the input is meaningful to the learner

  •  Inductive and deductive approach

inductive approach the rule is inferred through some form of guided discovery.

deductive approach the rule is presented and the language is produced based on the rule.

processes involved in grammar teaching and learning2
Processes involved in grammar teaching and learning
  • Declarative and procedural knowledge

Declarative knowledge (explicit) is available to consciousness and can be used as a set of instructions to guide behaviour through interpretative, problem-solving or analogy-forming procedures

Procedural knowledge (implicit) is not conscious and only comes about by repeated use of declarative knowledge in productions

  • Input and intake

Input: language resources, textbooks, materials, and classroom discourse that are used to initiate the language learning process.

Intake :that part of the input that has actually been processed and turned to knowledge of some kind.

the ppp lesson
The PPP lesson

Presentation - Practice – Production

  • Presentation stage:

- learners receive input concerning a certain language phenomenon

  • through various presentation techniques the teacher leads the learners to notice the language form in focus

General model for introducing new grammar:

FORM - FUNCTION - MEANING

  • lead-in
  • elicitation
  • highlighting form and pronunciation
  • accurate reproduction
  • concept checking
slide15

Practice

comprises a series of activities which can be seen as progressing on a control cline. At the controlled end the focus is on the form, at the free end the focus is on the meaning

  • Controlled practice-drilling
  • Free practice
  • Production

Free language use is fostered by the use of Communicative/information gap activities.

principles of teaching grammar
Principles of teaching grammar
  • Grammar should be taught frequently and in little bits with a lot of recycling and revision
  • Grammar should be taught systematically with enough flexibility to react to learners' needs.
  • Grammar should be presented and practiced in meaning-oriented activities.
  • A combination of inductive and deductive presentations should be used.
  • Limited use of the L1 should be made possible.
  • Problem-solving grammar activities should be used to develop learners' active knowledge of grammar.
  • Elicitation and corrective feedback.should be used
bibliography
Bibliography

Bygate, M., Tonkyn, A. and Williams, E. (1994)(eds.) Grammar and the Language Teacher.London: Prentice Hall.

Scrivener, J. (2010) Teaching English Grammar. Macmillan.

Thornbury, S. (1999) How to Teach Grammar.Longman

Thornbury, S (2001) Uncovering Grammar.Macmillan Heinemann.

Ur, P. (1988) Grammar Practice Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ur, P. (1996) A Course in Language Teaching.Cambridge: CUP.