Teaching Grammar and Language Functions. MA in English Language Teaching NYME BTK 2011 Foki Lívia. Definitions.
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MA in English Language Teaching
“At its heart, then, grammar consists of two fundamental ingredients – syntaxand morphology – and together they help us to identify grammatical forms which serve to enhance and sharpen the expression of meaning.”
Batstone, Product and process: Grammar in the second language classroom. In Bygate, M., Tonkyn, A. and Williams, E. (eds.) Grammar and the Language Teacher. pp. 224-236. London: Prentice Hall. 1994b:4
“Grammar is a set of rules that define how words are combined or changed to form acceptable units of meaningwithin language.”
Ur, A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP. 1996:87
“…grammar(ing) is one of the dynamic linguistic processesof pattern formulation in language, which can be used by humans for making meaning in context-appropriate ways.”
Larsen-Freeman, Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring. Boston: Thomson, Heinle. 2003:142
To enable learners to use linguistic forms
to achieve communicative competence
The native speaker's perfect knowledge of the grammatical rules, lexis and the sound system knowing what is grammatically correct.
Hymes communicative competence
The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language in order to form grammatically correct sentences but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom.
Canale and Swain
The Grammar Translation Method
“grammar translation approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules, followed by application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. It hence views language learning as consisting of little more than memorizing rules and facts in order to understand and manipulate the morphology and syntax of the foreign language” (Richards and Rogers,1986:3).
The Communicative Approach
The learner progresses along a natural order when receiving input that is one step beyond the learner’s current stage of linguistic competence (i+1) (Krashen's Input Hypothesis)
An approach to the teaching of grammar in which instruction is viewed as a way of raising the learner’s awareness of grammatical features of the language. This approach is contrasted with traditional approaches to the teaching of grammar, in which the goal is to instill correct grammatical patterns and habits directly.
conscious intake of new language
noticing is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge: conscious intake of new language
noticing the form is facilitated when the input is meaningful to the learner
inductive approach the rule is inferred through some form of guided discovery.
deductive approach the rule is presented and the language is produced based on the rule.
Declarative knowledge (explicit) is available to consciousness and can be used as a set of instructions to guide behaviour through interpretative, problem-solving or analogy-forming procedures
Procedural knowledge (implicit) is not conscious and only comes about by repeated use of declarative knowledge in productions
Input: language resources, textbooks, materials, and classroom discourse that are used to initiate the language learning process.
Intake :that part of the input that has actually been processed and turned to knowledge of some kind.
Presentation - Practice – Production
- learners receive input concerning a certain language phenomenon
General model for introducing new grammar:
FORM - FUNCTION - MEANING
comprises a series of activities which can be seen as progressing on a control cline. At the controlled end the focus is on the form, at the free end the focus is on the meaning
Free language use is fostered by the use of Communicative/information gap activities.
Bygate, M., Tonkyn, A. and Williams, E. (1994)(eds.) Grammar and the Language Teacher.London: Prentice Hall.
Scrivener, J. (2010) Teaching English Grammar. Macmillan.
Thornbury, S. (1999) How to Teach Grammar.Longman
Thornbury, S (2001) Uncovering Grammar.Macmillan Heinemann.
Ur, P. (1988) Grammar Practice Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ur, P. (1996) A Course in Language Teaching.Cambridge: CUP.