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DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING. By: Dr J. Shanbehzadeh Shanbehzadeh@gmail.com. Road map of course(1). Course overview. Table of content. Objectives. Software. book. book. Software. Evaluation. Evaluation. Exercise format. Exercise format. Instructor’s e-mail. 1. MATLAB 2. Khoros

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DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING


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    1. DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING By: Dr J. Shanbehzadeh Shanbehzadeh@gmail.com

    2. Road map of course(1) Course overview Table of content Objectives Software book book Software Evaluation Evaluation Exercise format Exercise format Instructor’s e-mail • 1. MATLAB • 2. Khoros • 3.OpenCV • Digital Image Processing by Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard Engene Woods, Prentice Hall, Third Edition, 2008. www.Prenhall.com/gonzalezwoods • 1. Exercises • 2. Research & Seminar • 3. Activity in class • 4. Final Exam Shanbehzadeh@gmail.com mhdgholizadeh@gmail.com iau.image.student-name.ex#

    3. Road map of course(2) Course overview Table of content Objectives • Know basics of digital image processing including image acquisition, perception, transformation, compression, enhancement, interpolation, restoration, analysis, and so on. • Be able to use MATLAB to implement basic image processing algorithms and get familiar with some functions provided by MATLAB image processing toolbox.

    4. Road map of course(3) Course overview Table of content Objectives Intensity Transformations and Spatial Filtering Wavelets and Multi resolution Processing Introduction Image Restoration and Reconstruction Digital Image Fundamentals Filtering in the Frequency Domain Image Compression Color Image Processing

    5. Image Engineering Image Understanding Feature Measurement Data Out High Layer Image Analysis Image Engineering Object Representation Middle Layer Image Processing Image Segmentation Image In Low Layer

    6. Digital Image Processing Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing (Fundamental Steps in DIP) Output is Image Color Image Processing Wavelets and Multiresolution Processing Compression Morphological Processing Output is Image Attributes Image Restoration Segmentation Knowledge Base Image Enhancement Representation & Description Image Acquisition Object Recognition Input

    7. DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING Chapter 1 - Introduction By: Dr J. Shanbehzadeh Shanbehzadeh@gmail.com

    8. Road map of chapter 1 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 • 1.1- What is Digital Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields that Use Digital Image Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image Processing System. • Case Studies • Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing. • What is Digital Image Processing? • The Origins of Digital Image Processing. • Examples of Fields that Use Digital Image Processing. • Concepts of an Image Processing System.

    9. 1.1 What is Digital Image Processing?

    10. Digital Image processing • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • An image may be defined as: • A two-dimensional function, f(x, y) • where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates, and the amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates • f(x, y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point. • When x, y, and the amplitude values of f are all finite, discrete quantities. • The field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer.

    11. Digital Image • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies

    12. 1.2 The Origins of Digital Image Processing

    13. The Origins of Digital Image Processing • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies One of the first applications of digital images was in the newspaper industry, when pictures were first sent by submarine cable between London and New York. Introduction of the Bart lane cable picture transmission system in the early 1920’s reduced the time required to transport a picture across the Atlantic from more than a week to less than three hours. Specialized printing equipment coded pictures for cable transmission and then reconstructed them at the receiving end.

    14. The Origins of Digital Image Processing • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Digital picture produced in 1921 from a coded tape by a telegraph printer with special type faces. (McFarlane.†) Digital picture made in 1922 from a tape punched after the signals had crossed the Atlantic twice. Some errors are visible. (McFarlane.) Unretouched cable picture of Generals Pershing and Foch, transmitted in 1929 from London to New York by 15-tone equipment. (McFarlane.)

    15. The Origins of Digital Image Processing • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies The first picture of the moon by a U.S. spacecraft. Ranger 7 took this image on July 31, 1964 at 9 : 09 A.M. EDT, about 17minutes before impacting the lunar surface. (Courtesy of NASA.)

    16. Gamma-Ray Imaging Examples of Fields that use Digital Image Processing • X-Ray Imaging • Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Imaging in the Microwave Band • Imaging in the Radio Band • Examples in which other Imaging Modalities are Used

    17. Examples of Fields that use Digital Image Processing • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Humans are limited to the visual band of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Imaging machines cover almost the entire EM spectrum, ranging from gamma to radio waves. They can operate on images generated by sources that humans are not accustomed to associating with images. These include ultrasound, electron microscopy, and computer-generated images. Digital image processing encompasses a wide and varied field of applications.

    18. Radiation from EM Spectrum • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies

    19. Radiation from EM Spectrum • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies

    20. Two Principal Application Areas • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation • Processing of image data for storage, transmission, and representation for autonomous machine perception • Applications: • Space applications • Medical imaging • Remote Earth resources observations • Astronomy

    21. Examples of Image Sensor • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Gamma- Ray Imaging • Nuclear • Medicine • X-Ray Imaging • Medicine • Electronic • Imaging In UV Band • Lithography • Industrial inspection • Imaging in Visible and Infrared Bands • Imaging in Microwave Bands • Radar • Imaging in Radio Bands • Medicine MRI • Astronomy • Ultrasound Imaging

    22. Gamma-Ray Imaging • Gamma-Ray Imaging Examples of Fields that use Digital Image Processing • X-Ray Imaging • Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Imaging in the Microwave Band • Imaging in the Radio Band • Examples in which other Imaging Modalities are Used

    23. Gamma-Ray Imaging • External source • Radioactive • Isotope decay • Internal Source • Positron emission • Star • Nuclear reaction • In nuclear medicine, the approach is to inject a patient with a radioactive isotope that emits gamma rays as it decays. • Images are produced from the emissions collected by gamma ray detectors. • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies

    24. Gamma-Ray Imaging • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies PET image Position emission tomography Bone scan Astronomical Observations Nuclear Reaction Reactor valve Cygnus loop Gamma radiation from a reactor valve Exploded about 15,000 years ago

    25. Gamma-Ray Imaging Examples of Fields that use Digital Image Processing • X-Ray Imaging • Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Imaging in the Microwave Band • X-Ray Imaging • Imaging in the Radio Band • Examples in which other Imaging Modalities are Used

    26. X-Ray Imaging • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies In parallel with space applications, digital image processing techniques began in the late 1960s and early 1970s to be used in medical imaging, remote Earth resources observations, and astronomy. Chest X-Ray Head CT

    27. X-Ray Imaging • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Industrial Imaging Circuit Board Astronomy

    28. X-Ray Imaging Aortic Angiogram • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Angiography: • Another major application in an area • called contrast enhancement radiography. • This procedure is used to obtain • images (called angiograms) of blood vessels. • A catheter (a small, flexible, hollow tube) is inserted, for example, into an artery or vein in the groin. • The catheter is threaded into the blood vessel and guided to the area to be studied. • When the catheter reaches the site under investigation, an X-ray contrast medium is injected through the catheter. • This enhances contrast of the blood vessels and enables the radiologist to see any irregularities or blockages.

    29. X-Ray Imaging • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies X-rays are among the oldest sources of EM radiation used for imaging. The best known use of X-rays is medical diagnostics, but they also are used extensively in industry and other areas, like astronomy. X-rays for medical and industrial imaging are generated using an X-ray tube, which is a vacuum tube with a cathode and anode. The cathode is heated, causing free electrons to be released. These electrons flow at high speed to the positively charged anode. When the electrons strike a nucleus, energy is released in the form of X-ray radiation.

    30. X-Ray Imaging Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies The invention of CAT in the early 1970s is one of the most important events in the application of image processing in medical diagnosis. CAT is a process in which a ring of detectors encircles an object (or patient) and an X-ray source, concentric with the detector ring, rotates about the object. The X-rays pass through the object and are collected at the opposite end by the corresponding detectors in the ring. As the source rotates, this procedure is repeated. Tomography consists of algorithms that use the sensed data to construct an image that represents a “slice” through the object. Motion of the object in a direction perpendicular to the ring of detectors produces a set of such slices, which constitute a three-dimensional (3-D) rendition of the inside of the object.

    31. X-Ray Imaging (Myocardial Viability) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Image of heart which has had a myocardial infarction (Heart attack). The arrow points to areas that have been damaged by the attack, indicating "dead" myocardial tissue. • Normal Heart

    32. Gamma-Ray Imaging Examples of Fields that use Digital Image Processing • X-Ray Imaging • Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Imaging in the Microwave Band • Imaging in the Radio Band • Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • Examples in which other Imaging Modalities are Used

    33. Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Microscopy • Applications of Ultraviolet: • Lithography • Industrial inspection • Microscopy • Lasers • Biological imaging • Astronomical observations Normal Corn Smut Corn Astronomical Observations

    34. Gamma-Ray Imaging Examples of Fields that use Digital Image Processing • X-Ray Imaging • Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Imaging in the Microwave Band • Imaging in the Radio Band • Examples in which other Imaging Modalities are Used • Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands

    35. Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Taxol Cholesterol Microprocessor Nickel oxide Thin film Surface of Audio CD Organic Superconductor

    36. Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands(LANDSAT Satellite Multi-spectral Bands) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies

    37. Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands(Remote Sensing) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies To Monitoring environmental Conditions on the Planet Nasa’sLandSat : Washington DC

    38. Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands(Whether Observation & Prediction) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Multispectral Image of Hurricane Andrew from satellites using sensors in the visible and infrared bands

    39. Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands(Nighttime lights of the World) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Infrared Satellite Images of the remaining populated part of the world Infrared Satellite Images of the Americas

    40. Imaging in the Visible and Infrared BandsIndustry: Automated Visual Inspection) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Pill container: Look for missing pills A circuit Board : Inspect them for missing part Bubbles in clear-plastic product: Detect unacceptable number of air pockets Bottles : Look for bottle that are not filled up to an acceptable level Cereal : Inspection for color and the presence of anomalies such as burned flake Image of replacement lens for human eye: Inspection of damage or incorrectly manufactured implants

    41. Imaging in the Visible and Infrared BandsLaw Enforcement: Automated Visual Inspection) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Paper currency: Automated counting/reading of the serial number for tracking and identifying bills Automated License plate reading Thumb Print: Automated search of a database for a potential matches

    42. Gamma-Ray Imaging Examples of Fields that use Digital Image Processing • X-Ray Imaging • Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Imaging in the Microwave Band • Imaging in the Radio Band • Examples in which other Imaging Modalities are Used • Imaging in the Microwave Band

    43. Imaging in Microwave Band • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Imaging Radar: The only way to explore inaccessible regions of the Earth’s surface

    44. Gamma-Ray Imaging Examples of Fields that use Digital Image Processing • X-Ray Imaging • Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Imaging in the Microwave Band • Imaging in the Radio Band • Examples in which other Imaging Modalities are Used • Imaging in the Radio Band

    45. Imaging in Radio Band (MRI: Magnetic Resonance Image) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies Knee Spine Head In this technique the patient is placed in a powerful magnet and passes radio waves through his or her body in short pulses.

    46. Imaging in Radio Band (Comparison of Different Imaging Modalities) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies

    47. Gamma-Ray Imaging Examples of Fields that use Digital Image Processing • X-Ray Imaging • Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band • Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Imaging in the Microwave Band • Imaging in the Radio Band • Examples in which other Imaging Modalities are Used • Examples in which other Imaging Modalities are Used

    48. Seismic Imaging(Acoustic Imaging) • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies • Geological applications: • Use sound in the low end of the sound spectrum(Hundreds of Hz) • Mineral and oil exploration

    49. Ultrasound Imaging • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies

    50. Electron Microscope Images • 1.1- What is Digital • Image Processing? • 1.2- The Origins of Digital • Image Processing. • 1.3- Examples of Fields • that Use Digital Image • Processing. • 1.4- Fundamental Steps • in Digital Image Processing. • 1.5- Concepts of an Image • Processing System. • Case Studies