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Immunology. Variolation. Lady Montagu. Edward Jenner. Smallpox. Recognition of traits specific to particular pathogens, using a vast array of receptors. Recognition of traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors. •. •.

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slide2
Variolation

Lady Montagu

figure 43 2

Recognition of traits specific to particularpathogens, using a vastarray of receptors

Recognition of traits sharedby broad ranges ofpathogens, using a smallset of receptors

Pathogens(such as bacteria,fungi, and viruses)

Figure 43.2

Barrier defenses:

INNATE IMMUNITY(all animals)

SkinMucous membranesSecretions

Internal defenses:

Phagocytic cellsNatural killer cellsAntimicrobial proteinsInflammatory response

• Rapid response

Humoral response:

ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY(vertebrates only)

Antibodies defend againstinfection in body fluids.

Cell-mediated response:

Cytotoxic cells defendagainst infection in body cells.

• Slower response

figure 43 3

Pathogen

Figure 43.3

PHAGOCYTICCELL

Vacuole

Lysosomecontainingenzymes

figure 43 7

Interstitialfluid

Bloodcapillary

Figure 43.7

Adenoid

Tonsils

Lymphaticvessels

Thymus

Lymphatic vessel

Tissuecells

Lymphatic vessel

Peyer’spatches(smallintestine)

Spleen

Lymphnodes

Appendix(cecum)

Lymphnode

Masses ofdefensive cells

figure 43 8 1
Figure 43.8-1

Pathogen

Splinter

Macro-phage

Signalingmolecules

Mastcell

Capillary

Neutrophil

Redblood cells

figure 43 8 2
Figure 43.8-2

Pathogen

Splinter

Movementof fluid

Macro-phage

Signalingmolecules

Mastcell

Capillary

Neutrophil

Redblood cells

figure 43 8 3
Figure 43.8-3

Pathogen

Splinter

Movementof fluid

Macro-phage

Signalingmolecules

Mastcell

Phagocytosis

Capillary

Neutrophil

Redblood cells

figure 43 9

Antigen-binding site

Antigen-binding site

Figure 43.9

Disulfidebridge

V

V

V

V

Variable regions

C

C

B cellantigenreceptor

Constant regions

C

C

Lightchain

Transmembraneregion

Heavy chains

Plasmamembrane

B cell

Cytoplasm of B cell

figure 43 10a
Figure 43.10a

Antigenreceptor

Antibody

B cell

Epitope

Antigen

Pathogen

(a) B cell antigen receptors and antibodies

figure 43 14

B cells thatdiffer inantigenspecificity

Figure 43.14

Antigen

Antigenreceptor

Antibody

Plasma cells

Memory cells

figure 43 15

Primary immune responseto antigen A producesantibodies to A.

Secondary immune response toantigen A produces antibodies to A;primary immune response to antigenB produces antibodies to B.

Figure 43.15

104

103

Antibodiesto A

Antibody concentration(arbitrary units)

Antibodiesto B

102

101

100

7

35

56

49

0

14

21

28

42

Exposure to antigens A and B

Exposureto antigen A

Time (days)

figure 43 20

Humoral (antibody-mediated) immune response

Cell-mediated immune response

Figure 43.20

Key

Antigen (1st exposure)

Stimulates

Engulfed by

Gives rise to

Antigen-presenting cell

Helper T cell

Cytotoxic T cell

B cell

Memoryhelper T cells

Antigen (2nd exposure)

Memorycytotoxic T cells

Active cytotoxic T cells

Plasma cells

Memory B cells

Secretedantibodies

Defend against extracellularpathogens

Defend against intracellularpathogens and cancer

figure 43 22
Figure 43.22

Histamine

IgE

Allergen

Granule

Mast cell

figure 43 25

Latency

AIDS

Figure 43.25

Relative anti-HIV antibodyconcentration

800

Relative HIVconcentration

600

Helper T cell concentration(in blood (cells/mm3)

Helper T cellconcentration

400

200

0

9

0

3

7

8

1

2

4

5

6

10

Years after untreated infection