Immunology. Variolation. Lady Montagu. Edward Jenner. Smallpox. Recognition of traits specific to particular pathogens, using a vast array of receptors. Recognition of traits shared by broad ranges of pathogens, using a small set of receptors. •. •.
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Recognition of traits specific to particularpathogens, using a vastarray of receptors
Recognition of traits sharedby broad ranges ofpathogens, using a smallset of receptors
Pathogens(such as bacteria,fungi, and viruses)Figure 43.2
INNATE IMMUNITY(all animals)
Phagocytic cellsNatural killer cellsAntimicrobial proteinsInflammatory response
• Rapid response
ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY(vertebrates only)
Antibodies defend againstinfection in body fluids.
Cytotoxic cells defendagainst infection in body cells.
• Slower response
(a) B cell antigen receptors and antibodies
Secondary immune response toantigen A produces antibodies to A;primary immune response to antigenB produces antibodies to B.Figure 43.15
Antibody concentration(arbitrary units)
Exposure to antigens A and B
Exposureto antigen A
Cell-mediated immune responseFigure 43.20
Antigen (1st exposure)
Gives rise to
Helper T cell
Cytotoxic T cell
Memoryhelper T cells
Antigen (2nd exposure)
Memorycytotoxic T cells
Active cytotoxic T cells
Memory B cells
Defend against extracellularpathogens
Defend against intracellularpathogens and cancer