Matter is anything with mass and takes up space. What structure separates living matter from nonliving matter? • atom • organ • cell • molecule • brain
characteristics of all living things • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b2XGl9vv54s • Watch the student made video to determine the main characteristics of all living things.
1.Made of 1 or more cells • All living things are made up of one or more cells • Unicellular • Single celled organisms • All bacteria, many protists, and some fungi • Multicellular • More than one- usually lots more. • Adult humans 60-90 trillions of cells • Nonliving matter is acellular • Matter not organized into cells • Ex) water, minerals, metal, air • Cell- basic unit of structure and function in all living things
1. Cells • Within one cell is molecules necessary for carrying out life processes: • Separation from external environment protects the cell • Synthesis (building) of molecules • Breakdown and elimination of waste • Energy transfers • Replication • When a cell stops functioning, disease and death can result
2. Displays organization • Molecular organization – • All life has a genetic code • Specific sequence • Codes are passed on over generations • Information molecules = DNA and RNA • Unicellular organisms carry out all life processes inside a single cell • Organization within the cell is necessary for it functioning • Multicellular organisms can have higher complexity due to cell specialization • Groups of cells become specialized for a specific function • Cell organized into: • Tissues organized into: • Organs organized into: • Organ systems organized into: • Multicellular Organism! • The whole equals the sum of it parts and if one part fails, all of it fails
3. Requires Energy • Organisms must continually take in energy in order to grow, reproduce, and maintain homeostasis • The ultimate source of energy on Earth is the • Sun! • Organisms have different mechanisms of energy capture: • Autotrophs • Solar energy is converted to food energy in autotrophic cells • Process called photosynthesis • Heterotrophs • Consume food energy from other organisms (autotrophs or heterotrophs that have eaten autotrophs)
3. Requires Energy • Both autotrophs and heterotrophs must convert food energy into cellular energy (ATP) • Process called cellular respiration • cellular energy powers your metabolism • Metabolism = the sum of all the chemical reactions in your body involved in energy transfers • When energy use is greater than energy input, weakness and death can result
“All animals are heterotrophs.” • True • False
“The only autotrophs are plants” • True • False
4. Grows and develops • All organism grow • Cell growth • One cell increases in size • How unicellular organisms grow • Too big is not efficient so microscopic in size • Cell division • All life starts as a single cell • Cells divide and make copies of themselves • More cells = more mass • Cells can specialize to perform different tasks
4. Grows and develops • Development – changes in an organism over the course of its lifetime • Human development ex): • Zygote embryo baby toddler child adolescent adult • Development is due to changes in cellular processes • An organism’s life cycle is marked by developmental changes
5. Reproduces • Life originated on Earth over 4 billion years ago • All life is here still today because of reproduction • Asexual reproduction – • one organism makes a genetic clone of itself • Ex) one unicellular organism replicates its DNA and then divides into two identical unicellular organisms • ex) a segment of a multicellular organism breaks off and then forms into a clone of the original • Sexual reproduction – • requires two organisms. Each contributes one cell containing half of their genetic information. The two cells fuse and a zygote is formed. The zygote then grows and develops into a unique organism (not clone). • Without adequate amounts of reproduction each generation, species go extinct.
Is pollination an example of asexual or sexual reproduction? • Asexual reproduction • Sexual reproduction [Default] [MC Any] [MC All]
6. Maintains homeostasis • Homeostasis- • The process of keeping a stable internal condition necessary for cellular processes even when external conditions are unfavorable • If anything that happens to an organism that affects it normal state, processes to restore the normal state may begin • Ex) homeostasis of… • Blood sugar level • Temperature • Water level • pH level • Oxygen level • Failure to restore homeostasis can result in death
7. Responds to stimuli • Organisms must respond to stimuli appropriately in order to stay alive • Stimulus = anything in an organism’s external or internal environment that causes a reaction or response • Response = a reaction to a stimulus • Ex) if a shark smells blood in the water, it will respond by moving towards it
7. Responds to stimuli • If I dimmed the lights in here, how would you respond so you could still process the information on the page? • Pupils would expand • If I raised the thermostat to 95 degrees, what would your body do so you don’t overheat? • Sweat, expand blood vessels close to the skin surface
8. Adaptations evolve over generations • Evolution - Genetic changes in a population ( group of organisms of the same species in the same area) over generations • Individuals do NOT evolve! • Evolution does NOT occur in a single life time! • Evolution can be caused by natural selection • Organisms will survive and reproduce more than others based on the traits they possess. Those beneficial traits will be passed on to their offspring. • Bad traits will be weeded out because organisms that have them will not survive and reproduce as much. • Given enough time, all organisms in the population will have the beneficial traits (adaptations) necessary for their environment. • Failure of a population to adapt to a changing environment may result in the loss of that population
8. Adaptations evolve over generations • Evolution through natural selection leads to adaptations- • Inherited traits that organisms in populations possess that enable them to thrive in their given environment • The frogs belonging to African Clawed Frog species all have strongly webbed feet. Why?
The following is an example of evolution:A caterpillar changes into a butterfly • True • False
At higher altitudes with less oxygen, your body makes more red blood cells to restore the amount of oxygen in your body to adequate levels. This is an example of • Growth and development • Containing one or more cells • Adaptations evolve over time • Maintaining homeostasis
Which best describes adaptation? • Reproducing as a species • A change in behavior in response to a stimuli • The increase in size as an organism ages • Inherited characteristics that increase survival
Which characteristic of life is represented on this graph? • cellular basis • growth • homeostasis • reproduction
Organism list • Bacteria • Cyanobacteria • E.coli • Staphyloccusaureus • Protist • Amoeba • paramecium • Euglena • Paramecium • Lichen • Fungi • Mushroom • Mold • Yeast • Lichen • Bleeding Tooth Fungus • Bluemilk Mushroom • Violet Coral • Plant • Cactus • Fern • Pine tree • Lily pad plant • Oak tree • Pitcher Plant • Big Blue Stem • Invertebrate animal • Sponge • Earthworm • Seahorse • jellyfish • Snail • Lobster • Octopus • Butterfly • Beetle • Starfish • spider • Vertebrate Animal • Human • penguin • Lizard • Polar bear • Whale • Freshwater fish • Shark (saltwater) • Dolphin • Cheetah • Elephant • Deer • Rattle snake • Hummingbird • Rat • Armadillo • Dog • Okapi • Platypus • Tufted Deer