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Complex Carbohydrates. FCS 3120. Amylose Lineaer Loose, flexible coil Amount varies with food product (usual range is 17-28\%) Tapioca & cornstarch. Amylopectin Dendritic (branched chain) Lacks helical configuration More abundant (some foods contain as much as 80\%). Starch Fractions.

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Presentation Transcript
starch fractions
Amylose

Lineaer

Loose, flexible coil

Amount varies with food product (usual range is 17-28%)

Tapioca & cornstarch

Amylopectin

Dendritic (branched chain)

Lacks helical configuration

More abundant (some foods contain as much as 80%)

Starch Fractions
functional properties
Functional Properties
  • Dextrinization
  • Gelatinization
  • Gelation
  • Retrogradation
dextrinization
Dextrinization
  • Dry heat applied to starch
  • Starch changes to dextrins
  • Change in color & flavor
  • Decreases thickening power
gelatinization
Gelatinization
  • Swelling of starch when heated with water
  • Reduces the amount of free water & increases the volume of the starch granule (increase in viscosity)
  • Pasting & implosion
gelation
Gelation
  • Gel formation
    • Continuous 3-D network that traps water
  • Occurs upon cooling
  • Amylose gels, amylopectin doesn’t
factors influencing paste viscosity gel formation
Proportion of starch

Type of starch

Extent of heating

Sugar

Acid

Sugar & acid

Agitation

Fat & protein

Factors influencing Paste, Viscosity, & Gel formation
retrogradation
Retrogradation
  • Gradual inc. in crystallization during storage
  • Break down of gel
  • Results in extensive tightening of the structure & dec. the water-holding capacity
  • Syneresis
classification of food starch
Classification of Food Starch
  • Unmodified/Native
    • Cereal starches
    • Root & tuber
    • Waxy (mucilagenous + glue-like)
    • High amylose
classification of food starch10
Classification of Food Starch
  • Modified
    • Thin-boiling
    • Oxidized
    • Cross-linked
    • Pre-gelatinized
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