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What is a CONOPS anyway?. Avoiding Brook’s “law”: “All major mistakes are made on the first day of the project”!. Topics. Motivation Recipe for a CONOPS The intended use of the system The Actors Scenarios Operational Requirements Where the CONOPS fit into the System Engineering Process

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what is a conops anyway

What is a CONOPS anyway?

Avoiding Brook’s “law”: “All major mistakes are made on the first day of the project”!

topics
Topics
  • Motivation
  • Recipe for a CONOPS
    • The intended use of the system
    • The Actors
    • Scenarios
    • Operational Requirements
  • Where the CONOPS fit into the System Engineering Process
  • How to create the CONOPS
  • CONOPS heuristics
  • CONOPS qualification
  • Discussion and Questions
motivation
Motivation
  • Initiate Conceptual Integrity
    • “I will contend that conceptual integrity is the most important consideration in system design” .. Fred Brooks
  • Discover the client’s aspirations, needs, conditions, and ideas that will influence the design of the system
  • Control customer expectations early
  • Define operational performance measures
  • Baseline for factors / impact analysis
  • Invoke the client’s reflective loop
recipe for a conops
Recipe for a CONOPS

Actors

Intended

Use

Operational

Requirements

Scenario of Use

The CONOPS is a model of function and behavior

intended use of the system
Intended use of the system
  • Client’s goals for the system
  • Why would a person use the system?
  • What are the “Business” processes that the system supports
  • Innate (problem invariant) vs. artifacts of technology
  • How will system earn a profit (why build it?)
the actors
The Actors

People who support the system

Users

People who are affected by the system

Client

scenarios system engineering not ooa
Scenarios (system engineering, not OOA)
  • Science fiction story
  • Illustrates solution processes & system participation
  • Sequential or concurrent
  • In problem / usage domain terms
  • Interaction of users & environment with the solution or system
operational requirements
Operational Requirements

...

Scenario

Behavioral Requirements

Functional

Requirements

Constraint

Requirements

Functional

Requirements

Functional

Requirements

where the conops fits in
Where the CONOPS fits in

CONOPS

Operational Information Exchange Matrix

Operational Concept Graphic

Operational Node Connectivity Diagram

C4ISR Operational View Essential & Supporting Products

how to create the conops

Establish Goals

Collect Facts

Induce Concepts

Determine Needs

State the Problem

How to create the CONOPS
how to create the conops continued
How to create the CONOPS continued

Establish

Goals

Collect

Facts

Induce

Concepts

Determine

Needs

State the

Problem

General

Process

Client

Users

Define

Specifics

Define

Representative

Elaborate

Refine

Categories

Intended

Use

Actors

Scenarios

Operational

Requirements

conops heuristics
CONOPS Heuristics
  • Know the business and how it earns profit
  • Users as an integral part of the CONOPS team
  • Beware of user inputs
  • Bring order to chaos (Conceptualize!!)
    • Unique and important performance requirements which will shape system design
    • Major business concepts which will affect system design
    • Attitude toward initial budget and its influence on structure of system
    • Implications of change / growth on long range performance of system
    • Genius is in finding and discarding irrelevant or trivial information
  • Take your time and play with the problem
  • Don’t just think happy path
  • Investigate alternative concepts with critical thinking
  • Seek judgment & experience to organize instead of paralyze
  • Maintain conceptual integrity
  • Verify and validate the CONOPS
conops qualification
CONOPS Qualification

Pilots &

Prototypes

Presentations

(Reviews)

“Executable”

Models

The customer is not always right, but must always think so

backup slide architecture bloody architecture
Backup Slide: Architecture, bloody architecture
  • Architecture – The structure or schematic misnomer
    • An architecture description is a representation, as of a current or future point in time, of a defined “domain” in terms of its component parts, what those parts do, how the parts relate to each other, and the rules and constraints under which the parts function. (C4ISR)
  • Architecture – The original meaning
    • The user interface (conceptual and physical) (Peña)
discussion question a
Discussion Question A

Why is experience essential to the successful derivation of a Conops?

discussion question b
Discussion Question B

How can users mislead a Conops effort?

How can management mislead a Conops effort?

discussion question c
Discussion Question C

What is the difference between a functional operational requirement and a functional design requirement?

What is the difference between a functional operational requirement and system functional requirement?