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The WIOD database: Construction and first results on the factor content of trade. Robert Stehrer The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw) Robert.Stehrer@wiiw.ac.at WPTGS workshop, October 6, 2010 – OECD Paris Version: 2010-10-06.

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the wiod database construction and first results on the factor content of trade

The WIOD database: Construction and first results on the factor content of trade

Robert Stehrer

The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw)

Robert.Stehrer@wiiw.ac.at

WPTGS workshop, October 6, 2010 – OECD Paris

Version: 2010-10-06

The WIOD-project is funded by the European Commission, Research Directorate General

as part of the 7th Framework Programme, Theme 8: Socio-Economic Sciences and Humanities, Grant Agreement no: 225 281.

wiod project www wiod org
WIOD project – www.wiod.org
  • Project funded within the 7th framework program of the EU
    • 10+OECD partners involved
  • Project started in May 2009 and ends in April 2012
  • Construction and applications
    • Construction of inter-country SUT/IO tables
    • Data publicly available in May 2012
  • Should allow for a wide range of applications
    • Socioeconomic issues
    • Environmental issues
    • (Policy) Modelling
wiod project data coverage
WIOD project – Data coverage
  • Inter-country Supply-Use and Input-Output tables
    • Benchmarked to NA data
  • Period: 1995-2006
  • 40 countries included
    • EU-15 countries
    • EU-12 countries
    • NAFTA: Canada, USA, Mexico
    • BRI: Brazil, Russia, India
    • CHN: China
    • OTHER: Turkey, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, Australia
  • Sector and product classifications of SUTs
    • 59 products (corresponding to CPA)
    • 35 industries (corresponding to NACE rev. 1)
wiod project data coverage1
WIOD project – Data coverage
  • Trade data
    • Goods trade (HS 6-digit – use category – CPA)
    • Services trade (BoP codes)
  • Plus satellite accounts
    • Energy and environment
    • Socio-economic indicators (capital and labour)
  • Deflated tables
construction of international suts
Construction of International SUTs
  • 1.Time-series of SUTs at purchasers’ prices
    • Extrapolation and benchmarking of SUTs to National Accounts statistics, based on SUT-RAS method
  • 2. From SUTs at purchasers’ prices to basic prices
    • Construction of net tax, trade and transport margin matrices
  • 3. From national to inter-country SUTs
    • Breakdown of USE table into domestic and imported (by supplying country)
    • Based on HS6 to end-use categorisation (improving on BEC)
    • Breakdown by supplying country differentiated by use categories
    • In later stage use import tables from NSIs if available
    • Rest of World: exports to RoW is calculated as residual and can become negative
construction of international wiot
Construction of International WIOT
  • 4. From SUTs to inter-country input-output table
    • Technology assumptions (on product sales or production)
  • 5.From current price to constant price tables
    • National deflators based on industry gross output deflators, and row wise deflation of SUT. At later stage add in more information from national accounts
    • International deflators (PPPs): World Bank ICP expenditure PPPs adjusted and allocated to industries (for 2005)
  • For details see documentation on WIOD webpage:
  • A.A.Erumbam, R. Gouma, B. Los, R. Stehrer, U. Temurshoev, M. Timmer, and G. de Vries (2010): World Input-Output Database: Construction and Applications.
  • U. Temurshoev and Timmer (2009): SUT-RAS procedure.
  • J. Francois and O. Pindyuk (2010): WIOD service trade data.
  • J. Pöschl and R. Stehrer (2010): WIOD goods trade data.
the bilateral factor content of trade preliminary results
The bilateral factor content of trade(preliminary results)

Accounting for trade in intermediates

(following Reimer, JIE 2006; Trefler and Zhu, JIE 2010)

N … Number of countries; G … Number of industries; F … Number of factors

Direct plus indirect factor input

A … coefficient matrix of dimension NG x NG

D … direct factor input matrix of dimension F x NG

Bilateral (NG x N) import matrix

the bilateral factor content of trade
The bilateral factor content of trade
  • Factor content of trade for country c
  • Diagonalization of results in
  • Bilateral trade matrix for factor allowing for
    • Bilateral and sector specific calculations
    • Focus on bilateral factor services flows
  • NOTE:
  • ROW not included in calculations
  • Results are preliminary as partly relying on imputed values
selected results net exports of eu 15
Selected results: Net exports of EU-15

Trade in goods and services

Trade in value added

in mio US-$

in mio US-$

selected results structure of value added trade not including intra eu 15 trade
Selected results: Structure of value added tradenot including intra EU-15 trade

Exports

Imports

trade in value added by various factors not including intra eu 15 trade
Trade in value added by various factorsnot including intra EU-15 trade
  • Capital
    • ICT capital
    • Non-ICT capital
  • Labour
    • Low educated
    • Medium educated
    • High educated
structure of net exports of va by selected industries
Structure of net exports of VA by selected industries

Textile and textile products

(NACE 17 and 18)

Leather and leather products

(NACE 19)

structure of net exports of va by selected industries1
Structure of net exports of VA by selected industries

Transport equipment

(NACE 34 and 35)

Electrical and optical equ.

(NACE 30 to 33)

next steps
Next steps

Improving bilateral trade in services and trade in goods

Improving breakdown by use categories (see below)

Comparing our use-classification of trade flows with official import IO tables.

Improving factor input data for non-OECD countries

as part of work by World KLEMS consortium

Constant price series

National deflators

Purchasing power parities for output and intermediate inputs

Volume masures of labour and capital

Processing export trade tables for Mexico and China

Testing by users

Available to consortium members

Full availability in May 2012

appendix use categories and proportionality assumptions
Appendix: Use categories and proportionality assumptions

Breakdown of imports by use categories

Based on trade data (revised BEC correspondence)

Based on information from existing import tables

Breakdown of each cell by country of origin

Differentiated for intermediates, final consumption and gross fixed capital formation

comparisons of use breakdown
Comparisons of use breakdown

Use existing import USE or SIO tables

Eurostat

OECD

Shares of imported intermediates in total imports

Compare to BEC or BEC-WIOD categorisation

comparisons to siot data
Comparisons to SIOT data

Share ofimported intermediates in total imports

NACE34 - Motor vehicles, trailersand semi-trailers

2000

2005

comparisons to siot data1
Comparisons to SIOT data

Share of imported intermediates in total imports

NACE 35 - Other transport equipment

2005

2000

comparisons to siot data2
Comparisons to SIOT data

Share of imported intermediates in total imports

NACE 18 – Wearing apparel, furs

2005

2000

Note different scales

product descriptions
Product descriptions

Productdescriptionsatdetailedlevelare not sufficienttodifferentiatebetweenusecategories

Example: HS 6101 and 6105

6101  Men'sorboys' overcoats, car-coats, capes, cloaks, anoraks (including ski-jackets), wind-cheaters, wind-jacketsandsimilararticles, knittedorcrocheted, otherthanthoseofheadingNo 6103     6101 10  - Ofwoolorfineanimalhair              6101 20  - Ofcotton              6101 30  - Of man-madefibres              6101 90  - Ofother textile materials

6105  Men'sorboys' shirts, knittedorcrocheted    6105 10  - Ofcotton              6105 20  - Of man-madefibres              6105 90  - Ofother textile materials

Country-specific adjustments, weights, etc. used by NSIs

Additionally, specific problems for particular products (cars, light bulbs, etc.)

conclusions
Conclusions

Give weights to use categories

Further improvements by including information from existing import tables

Breakdown into use categories

Allocation of intermediate product over using industries

comments to
Comments to ...

Robert Stehrer

The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies – wiiw

www.wiiw.ac.at

Robert.Stehrer@wiiw.ac.at

The WIOD project: www.wiod.org