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Session 12 Diversity in Cultural Traditions: Three Cultural Trends into the core of the Middle Ages… But before, some more of periodification. T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e HST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I. Notes

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t h e a m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y o f r o m e hst 201 survey of western civilization i

Session 12Diversity in Cultural Traditions: Three Cultural Trends into the core of the Middle Ages…

But before, some more of periodification

T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m eHST 201 - Survey of Western Civilization I

slide2

Notes

> Vuk and Tess, please send me Word documents that I can read

> Class on Monday will start at 11.00am (till 12.15)

slide3

Peter Brown, 2003, A Life of Learning, Charles Homer Haskins Lecture for 2003, p.9“The study of religious experience divorced from a precise social context has always struck me as a singularly weightless exercise. A history of the rise of Christianity that is not rooted in a precise and up to-date history of the social, economic and cultural circumstances of the later empire and the early middle ages is, quite simply, not a history."

slide4

Why is p important? Why do we need “manageable chunks” if history is a “seamless web”?How does it help us in our day-to-day discussions on politics and international relations?

Bentley (Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History, The American Historical Review, Vol. 101, No. 3 (Jun., 1996), pp. 749-770)

> P schemes based on the experiences of Western or any other case hardly explain the trajectories of other societies;

> Different peoples are involved in diverse scale processes to different degrees, so global p are approximate;

> Alternatives sensitive to local experiences: as Brown's concept of “Late Antiquity” (150-750) [and splitting the Roman empire],… has great power to understand historical development in the M basin and SW Asia, even if it does not resonate on a hemispheric scale”.

slide5

Bentley (cont.)

> Cross-cultural factors affecting boundaries and regions: mass migrations, imperial expansion, and long-distance trade.

> Bentley proposes a post-classical age (500-1000 C.E.) & an age of transregional nomadic empires (1000-1500 C.E.).

>The perspective changes…

Three states, Tang, Abbasid, and Byzantine maintained order over large territories, sponsoring powerful economies. Trade & imperial expansion encouraged cross-cultural interaction; stability in a very large region encouraged merchants to revive the caravan trading network of the silk roads.

Then Seljuk Turks built an empire extending from Central Asia into SW Asia and Anatolia; the Khitan and the Jurchen people established an empires in the steppelands north of China.The most dramatic event: the Mongols and their allies overran most of Eurasia and established the largest empire in human history, stretching from China, Manchuria, and Korea in the east to Russia and the Danube in the west & diplomatic relations with the west.

the middle ages the events
The Middle Ages: the events

476/565 800 1300 1453/1492

Early MA > High MA > Late MA

> Fall of Rome

> Justinian

> Constantine’s division of Empire

> Rise of Islam

“Transition”

“Dark Ages”

Americas <

Fall of < Constantinople

Renaissance <

End of 100 < years war

Battle of < Lepanto

“Reconquista” <

of Spain

Holy Roman Empire

Monasteries

Plagues

Universities

Schism

Anglo-Norman

Administration & bureaucracy

Romanic arch.

Gothic architecture

?

Not really the “Dark Ages”

the middle ages the events1

476/565 800 1300 1453/1492

Early MA > High MA > Late MA

The Middle Ages: the events

Americas <

Fall of < Constantinople

Renaissance <

End of 100 < years war

Battle of < Lepanto

“Reconquista” <

of Spain

Holy Roman Empire

Monasteries

> Fall of Rome

> Justinian

> Constantine’s division of the empire

> Rise of Islam

“Transition”

“Dark Ages”

Plagues

Universities

Schism

Between Hellenism and Renaissance, Islam is theIntermediate Civilization (Goitein)

?

Institutionalized Islam,

territorial, mostly non-Arab.

1250-1800. Military feudalism

& state bureaucracy, mono-

polies, supervised economy.

Intermediate, in time&space

Greek secular sciences,

rich & flexible creativeness

in the field of religion.

Arabism and Arabic Islam, receptiveness for values of culture, spread of language & Qoran.

the middle ages the events2
The Middle Ages: the events

1000

476/565 800 1300 1453/1492

Early MA > High MA > Late MA

> Fall of Rome

> Justinian

> Constantine’s division of Empire

> Rise of Islam

“The Renaissance of

the 12thCentury”

Americas <

Fall of < Constantinople

Renaissance <

End of 100 < years war

Battle of < Lepanto

“Reconquista” <

of Spain

Holy Roman Empire

Monasteries

Plagues

Universities

>The building of

Western Law

Schism

>Intercontinental

commerce

Romanic architecture

>Gothic architecture

age of cathedrals

>Rennaissance of

Greco-Roman art?

slide9

Hollister: The Nonexistence of the Middle Ages(The Phases of European History and the Nonexistence of the Middle Ages. C. Warren Hollister. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 61, No. 1 (Feb., 1992), pp. 1-22)

> “Middle Ages" term:1469 Giovanni Andrea.

> 17th century, concept “medieval”: describe and “stigmatize an allegedly stagnant, thousand-year middle period between the fall of the western Roman Empire in AD 476 and the events of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries that supposedly ushered in ‘modernity’”.

> A-MA-M paradigm of the 18th century, petrified in school and university curricula in the 19th; remains “an indestructible fossil of self-congratulatory Renaissance humanism”.

> No to Middle Ages as the "Christian Centuries“ (great Christian events before and after);

hollister cont
Hollister (cont.)

> Divide between the late-antique and modern eras should be 11th-12th rather than 15th-16th

> Birth of “Western Law”

> Swift urbanization, birth of the metropolis (and

also the agrarian village with Cathedral &Church …with new cultivation technologies)

> Commercial revolution, with new routes

> Economic take-off, money, profit based…

> Brown cites the abandonment of the Germanic judicial ordeal in the 12th c. is a gradual but profoundly significant change in attitude, from law based on divine judgment to law based on testimony and the verdicts of juries. “Perhaps the single greatest precondition for the growth of rationality”.

hollister cont1
Hollister (cont.)

> Also "The Gregorian Reform Movement" or "The Investiture Controversy”. Gregory VII vs. Holy Roman Emperor, that led to the establishment of Canon law, accompanied by a parallel process in civil law based on the revival of Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis- the "Body of Civil Law"- essentially, a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire.

> Haskins: The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. He argued in fact for an expanded 12th century, 1050-1250;

> Just a bit defensive about his idea: "A renaissance in the twelfth century!" he wrote. "Do not the Middle Ages, that epoch of ignorance, stagnation, and gloom, stand in the sharpest contrast to the light and progress and freedom of the Italian Renaissance which followed?“…"humbug!“

> A thesis very much supported in the academic community.

a novel periodification
A novel periodification

Hollister proposes a different periodization schema as follows:

Classical Antiquity (> 180 AD)

Late Antiquity (> 11th century)

Traditional/pre-Industrial Europe

(11th > 1789)

Modern Western Civilization (1790-1950)

Post-Modern West (with Pacific-Rim Asia).

the byzantine empire
The Byzantine empire

> Its start? Technically, the division of the R empire… Diocletian? Constantine?

> The Roman revival of Justinian, with a twist of

Latin in B 527-565

> Germanic Lombards conquer the Italy 568

> Ascension of emperor Heraclius, fully Greek rulers

Defeats the Persians, captures Jerusalem 610-641

> Arabs occupy Byzantine territory and attack C 650-717

> Anatolia under B rule 717-750

> Iconoclastic movement (in the same vein as Islam?

Against monasteries…political as well, against

pretensions of Charlemagne and Leo III) 700-850

> Palace intrigues and complots & strong, regulated administration based on control over trade, new

industries & strategic position

slide16
> Stalemate between Arabs and Byzantium 750-950

> Russia converts to orthodoxy 911-989

> Successful campaigns against Abbasid rulers

& B reconquers most of Syria 950-1000

> Annexation of Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia 1015-1025

> Schism of the Christian Church (and definite distinction

E vs W… importance of B for the W overshadowed) 1054

> Seljuk Turks (Ottoman) overrun eastern Byzantine provinces …start of the defensive state & decline 1071

> Reign of Alexius Comnenus (against Normans, treaty

with Turks, Crusade, takes Anatolia but independent crusader states 1081-1118

> First Crusade, Jerusalem 1095-1099

> Fourth Crusade, capture of C by Venice:

the Latin empire 1204-1261

> Fall of Constantinople 1453

> Trebizond, last capital of the minuscule Byzantine empire

slide17
Spread of Islam 622-750

> Expulsion of Muhammad from Mecca (Hijrah) 622

> Return of Muhammad to Mecca 630

> Death of Muhammad 632

> Abu-Bakr becomes caliph 632

> Umar becomes caliph 634

> Arabs occupy Antioch, Damascus and Jerusalem 636

> Arabs reach Persian capital 637

> Arabs invade Egypt 646

> Arabs conquer Persian empire 651

> Sunni-Shiite schism 661

> Arabs conquer North Africa 646-711

> Umayyad dynasty 661-750

> Arabs invade Spain 711

> Abbasid dynasty 750

> Arabs stopped at Ostia 800

> Arabs defeated at Poitiers by Charles Martel 732

> then stopped near Lyons 739

slide19
The Caloringian empire

> The Rise of the Carolingian Empire 717-814

> Charles Martel becomes mayor of the palace 717

> The Carolingians (Charles, Pepin and Carloman)

share power with the Merovingian 717-751

> Charlemagne succeeds Pepin 768

> Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman emperor 800

> Louis the Pious becomes emperor 813

> Charlemagne dies 814

slide21
Library research for paper

We train our students to become "information literate," which is defined as "the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue at hand."

> Where to find the information? > Using AUR’s resources…

1. AUR database: local books

http://www.galileo.aur.it/cgi-bin/koha/opac-main.pl

2. URBS database: local Roman books http://www.reteurbs.org/search/

3. CSI database: list of electronic resources / Restricted

http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/eresource/alphalist.php

slide22
4. SIU database: journals and periodicals / Restricted

http://ux7xn7gd4e.search.serialssolutions.com/

Journal of Roman Studies

5. Google Books / Open but limited… have to be

lucky to have the right pages open

reconstruction+heritage

middle+ages+plague

6. Search with Google on the WWW…search

adding “PDF”, sometimes you get important papers

middle+ages+society+pdf

7. The use of Wikipedia…not really recommended…

Only in emergencies