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Implementation. Rest of term . November 4 –Implementation – November 5 – policy analysis quiz on Connect by midnight November 6 – Implementation, last tutorial November 11 – Remembrance Day no class November 13 – forest carbon 1 Brief due

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rest of term
Rest of term
  • November 4 –Implementation –
  • November 5 – policy analysis quiz on Connect by midnight
  • November 6 – Implementation, last tutorial
  • November 11 – Remembrance Day no class
    • November 13 – forest carbon 1 Brief due
  • November 17 (Monday evening) – ABTsimulation
  • November 18 no class
  • November 18 (evening) – carbon simulation
  • November 20 – Lecture - comparative
  • November 25 – conclusion 1
  • November 27 – conclusion 2
  • December 3– 3:30-5:30 final exam
today s and thursday s agenda
Today’s (and Thursday’s) Agenda
  • Implementation – overview
  • Importance of detail
  • Conditions for success
  • GBR EBM case

Andrew S. Wright

http://www.cold-coast.com/

policy cycle model
Agenda-Setting

Policy Formulation

Decisionmaking

Policy Implementation

Monitoring and Evaluation

Policy Cycle Model
implementation overcoming hurdles
Implementation - overcoming hurdles

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVNDBluxIv8 At 0:50

readings this week
Readings this week

November 4, 6

  • David Weimer and Aidan Vining, Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice, pp. 274-280. (reading packet)
  • Karen Price, Audrey Roburn, Andy MacKinnon, “Ecosystem-based management in the Great Bear Rainforest,” Forest Ecology and Management 258 (2009)
this week s themes
This week’s themes
  • There is a tension between factors for success in decision-making (agreement) and implementation (clarity and specificity).
  • The meaning is in the detail: it is impossible to understand how policy affects the distribution of values without understanding the details of policy design and implementation.
implementation overview
Implementation - Overview
  • begins after adoption, continues until termination
  • policies not self-executing
    • EBM in GBR below
  • policies transformed as they are implemented
    • Clayoquot Sound Land Use Decision
  • implementation as a series of adoptions
policy alternation through implementation hoberg 1996 chapter excerpt
Policy alternation through implementation – (Hoberg 1996 chapter excerpt)
  • Clayoquot Sound Land Use Decision – 1993
    • One-third of contested area set aside as protected
    • Unleashed widespread protests– 800 arrests
  • NDP Government Response
    • Negotiate IMA with First Nations
    • Appoint Clayoquot Sound Scientific Panel for Sustainable Forestry Practices
  • Results:
    • Co-management board
    • Logging standards much stricter then Code
    • Dramatic drop in timber harvest

Land use plan remained in tact, but relevant policy changed fundamentally

the importance of detail
The importance of detail
  • Policy is about the use of government authority in the pursuit of multiple and usually conflicting societal values
  • To understand the impact on values, you must understand the details of policy and its implementation
success factors adapted from weimer and vining
Success Factors(adapted from Weimer and Vining)
  • clear and consistent objectives
  • reasonable theory
    • policy a chain of hypotheses
  • appropriate assembly process
    • who controls relevant elements: implementing officials, target groups
    • What are their motivations?
    • What resources available to get compliance
  • skillful and committed people
    • fixers
  • political support
today s agenda
Today’s Agenda
  • D-M Conclusion
  • Implementation – overview
  • Importance of detail
  • Conditions for success
  • GBR EBM case
today s agenda1
Today’s Agenda
  • D-M Conclusion
  • Implementation – overview
  • Importance of detail
  • Conditions for success
  • GBR EBM case
ebm conflicting interpretations
EBM – Conflicting interpretations
  • “… an adaptive approach to managing human activities that seeks to ensure the coexistence of healthy, fully functioning ecosystems and human communities.

Coast Information Team, EBM Framework

  • “The focus of resource development within these areas is to apply a new innovative Ecosystem Based Management approach that will enhance community stability, encourage economic diversification and increase local employment, economic development and other benefits from resources.”

backgrounder to February, 2006 announcement

concept range of natural variability ronv
Concept: Range of Natural Variability (RONV)
  • “The range of dynamic change in natural systems over historic time periods (~ 500 years before present)” (glossary)
  • “used as a benchmark to assess the degree of past change and to guide future management” (glossary)
  • Original EBM: management should reflect patterns of natural disturbance in the particular ecological system in question.
  • In this region: RONV for old growth ~90%
getting agreement vs guiding implementation
Getting Agreement vs. Guiding Implementation
  • “constructive ambiguity” of EBM facilitated agreement
  • Frustrated implementation
    • Postponed conflict resolution
uncertainty over ebm standards old growth representation 30 vs 70
Uncertainty over EBM Standardsold growth representation: 30% vs. 70%
  • 2006: Parties commit to full implementation of EBM by March 2009
  • Definition of EBM uncertain
  • Coast Information Team, environmentalists say 70%
  • LRMPs, industry, government – and existing policy said 30%
coast information team ebm planning handbook 2004
Coast Information TeamEBM Planning Handbook 2004

http://www.citbc.org/ebmplan.html

coast information team ebm planning handbook
Coast Information TeamEBM Planning Handbook
  • Seral stage: Any stage of development of an ecosystem from a disturbed, unvegetated state to a climax plant community. It defines the structural attributes and age of a plant community.
  • Old seral = old growth
  • In this ecosystem, >250 years old
lrmps 2004
LRMPs -2004

p. 21 of Central Coast LRMP http://archive.ilmb.gov.bc.ca/slrp/lrmp/nanaimo/cencoast/docs/table_rec/final_report_may20_04.pdf

lrmps
LRMPs
  • The common and very common group are 98% of the area – the “coastal western hemlock” that enviros cherish
march 2009 decision1
March 2009 Decision
  • “Low-impact logging regulations that will conserve 50 per cent of the natural range of old growth forests.”
  • Merely in the preamble, non-binding
  • Default targets specified in complex table
march 2009 decision cont
March 2009 Decision (cont)
  • Section 14.6 of order
  • Default target needs to be attained unless
  • Does not fall below 30% of RONV
  • Information sharing and consultation with First Nations
  • A landscape unit habitat assessment for species at risk and regionally important wildlife is completed by a qualified professional
  • Old forest is retained to provide sufficient habitat to sustain species at risk and regionally important wildlife, based on the above assessment
  • An adaptive management plan is developed and implemented to the extent practicable
march 2009 decision cont1
March 2009 Decision (cont)
  • Section 14.6 of order
  • Default target needs to be attained unless
  • Does not fall below 30% of RONV
  • Information sharing and consultation with First Nations [already required]
  • A landscape unit habitat assessment for species at risk and regionally important wildlife is completed by a qualified professional [already required]
  • Old forest is retained to provide sufficient habitat to sustain species at risk and regionally important wildlife, based on the above assessment [already required]
  • An adaptive management plan is developed and implemented to the extent practicable [weasel words]
distilled evolution of ebm old growth retention standards
Distilled evolution of EBM old growth retention standards
  • CIT recommended 70% at landscape level (2004)
  • LRMP recommended 30% for virtually all (2004)
  • 2006 policy adopted LRMP as “interim target” pledged full implementation by 2009
  • 2009 50% region-wide target, but fine print in rules shows it is more like 30%
    • New commitment for full implementation by 2014
success factors adapted from weimer and vining1
Success Factors(adapted from Weimer and Vining)
  • clear and consistent objectives
  • reasonable theory
    • policy a chain of hypotheses
  • appropriate assembly process
    • who controls relevant elements: implementing officials, target groups
    • What are their motivations?
    • What resources available to get compliance
  • skillful and committed people
    • fixers
  • political support
success factors vs price et al on ebm
Success Factors vs Price et al on EBM

Weimer and Vining

PRICE ET AL P. 7

Immense inertia – easy to fall back on status quo thinking

e.g., reliance on timber supply for HWB

Lack of data

Socio-cultural

Ecosystem inventory

Causal knowledge

Political commitment to making tradeoffs

  • clear and consistent objectives
  • reasonable theory
  • appropriate assembly process
  • skillful and committed people
  • political support
clear and consistent objectives
Clear and consistent objectives
  • Objectives were vague and in conflict
  • Theme: There is a tension between factor for success in decision-making (agreement) and implementation (clarity and specificity)
reasonable theory price et al ebm in the gbr
Reasonable theory – Price et al: EBM in the GBR
  • Abundant evidence supports the existence of habitat thresholds, but there is no consensus on how much habitat is required to avoid thresholds, beyond an agreement that amount will vary among organisms and across ecosystems. Several authors have suggested using habitat thresholds relevant to the most sensitive regionally occurring species to set targets.
  • In the Great Bear Rainforest however, no research into habitat thresholds had been conducted. Faced with little regionally specific information, independent advisors searched for an alternative approach suited for precautionary guidance. The solution was to review studies on thresholds where loss of suitable habitat in any landscape was shown to affect a population or community
current status best update here
Current Statusbest update here
  • January 2014 – enviros, industry, agree to ~ 70%
    • First Nations have yet to agree
  • Outstanding issues
    • Skills training
    • Carbon offset credits
    • Share of (limited) logging
    • Rollback coastal ferry cuts
    • End to grizzly bear hunt
conclusion implementation themes
Conclusion – Implementation themes
  • There is a tension between factor for success in decision-making (agreement) and implementation (clarity and specificity)
  • The meaning is in the detail: it is impossible to understand how policy affects the distribution of values without understanding the details of policy design and implementation
next week
Next week
  • Forest carbon