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II. Classification of Microorganisms. A. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature B. Eukaryotic Organisms C. Prokaryotic Organisms D. Viruses. II. A. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature. Taxonomy Kingdom Phylum (pl: Phyla) Class Order Family Genus (pl: Genera)

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ii classification of microorganisms
II. Classification of Microorganisms

A. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature

B. Eukaryotic Organisms

C. Prokaryotic Organisms

D. Viruses

ii a principles of classification and nomenclature
II. A. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature
  • Taxonomy
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum (pl: Phyla)
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus (pl: Genera)
    • Species (pl: Species)
ii a principles of classification and nomenclature1
II. A. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature
  • Phylogenetic vs. Phenetic Classification Systems
    • Phylogenetic Classification System: Groups reflect genetic similarity and evolutionary relatedness
    • Phenetic Classification System: Groups do not necessarily reflect genetic similarity or evolutionary relatedness. Instead, groups are based on convenient or observable characteristics.
ii a principles of classification and nomenclature2
II. A. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature
  • Definition of “species” in microbiology
    • Type strains: “Known” well-characterized pure cultures; references for the identification of unknowns
    • American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)
ii a principles of classification and nomenclature3
II. A. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature
  • “Species” vs. “Strain”
    • Species: A specific or defined type of organism, defined by similarity with known species.
    • Strain: Genetic variation within a species
ii a principles of classification and nomenclature4
II. A. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature
  • Nomenclature
    • Scientific name (Systematic Name) Binomial System of Nomenclature

Genus name + species name italicized or underlined genus name is capitalized and may be abbreviated species name is never abbreviated.

eg: Bacillus subtilisB. subtilis

ii a principles of classification and nomenclature5
II. A. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature
  • Nomenclature (cont.)
    • Common or descriptive names (trivial names)

eg: tubercle bacillus         (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

meningococcus (Neiserria meningitidis)

Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes)

ii b eukaryotic organisms
II. B. Eukaryotic Organisms
  • Eukaryotic Cells

Have: Complex Internal Membrane System          Compartmentalization         Membrane-Enclosed Organelles

DNA is enclosed in a membrane-bound nucleus

Includes:         Animal & Plant cells        Eukaryotic Microorganisms

ii b eukaryotic organisms1
II. B. Eukaryotic Organisms
  • Eukaryotic Kingdoms
    • Kingdom Protista(Protozoa and Algae)
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Kingdom Animalia
ii c prokaryotic organisms
II. C. Prokaryotic Organisms
  • Prokaryotic Cells
    • Have: No (or few) internal membranes
    • Many processes that are associated with organelles in eukaryotes (eg. respiration, photosynthesis) are mediated by specialized regions of the plasma membrane in prokaryotes
ii c prokaryotic organisms1
II. C. Prokaryotic Organisms
  • Prokaryotic Cells (cont.)
    • There is no membrane-bound nucleus in prokaryotes. Instead the DNA is located within a specialized region of the cytoplasm of the cell called the nucleoid region. There is no nuclear membrane surrounding the nucleoid.
    • Includes: The BacteriaThe terms “prokaryotic cell” and “bacterial cell” often are used interchangeably
ii c prokaryotic organisms2
II. C. Prokaryotic Organisms
  • Prokaryotic Kingdoms
    • Kingdom Eubacteria
    • Kingdom Archaeobacteria
ii d viruses
II. D. Viruses
  • Structure of a “Virus Particle”
    • Noncellular Biological Entity
    • Contains either DNA or RNA (not both)
    • Nucleic Acid is surrounded or coated by a protein shell (capsid)
    • Some viruses possess a membrane-like envelope surrounding the particle
ii d viruses1
II. D. Viruses
  • Viral Replication
    • No independent metabolism or replication
    • Replicate only inside an infected host cell
    • Do not replicate via a process of cell division
    • Replicate via a process of:
      • Attachment and Penetration
      • Disassembly (uncoating)
      • Synthesis of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid
      • Reassembly of new viral particles
      • Release of new viral particles