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  1. Haematuria Dr. Abdelmoniem E. Eltraifi Consultant Urologist College of Medicine & KKUH King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

  2. Cases Quiz

  3. Case 1 42 years old male, under your follow up for DM. During his routine follow up appointment. Told you that:

  4. He had an episode of gross haematuria, one month ago. He want to a private clinic near his house. They gave him an IV fluids. They did for him: MSU and urine culture, which he showed to you, with only +ve uncountable RBCs.

  5. An US of kidneys, bladder and Pelvisand all were normal

  6. Following that single episode, he had a clear urine. His history other wise unremarkable apart from DM

  7. What you will do for him? Reassurance. Follow up. Further work up.

  8. What will you do First? Urine analysis. Other Investigations.

  9. If his urine analysis came clear, with nil RBCs Will you do: Reassurance Follow up? Further investigations?

  10. What investigations? Urine Cytology Repeat US of the kidneys and pelvis. IVU CTU

  11. If CTU and urine cytology were –ve. Are you going to do: Further investigations? Follow up? Reassurance?

  12. What investigation and why?

  13. Haematuria Prevalence of Haematuria ranges from 2.5% to 20%

  14. Haematuria classified into: Gross, Macroscopic Symptomatic ( Painful) or Asymptomatic ( painless) Microscopic, invisible Also Symptomatic ( Painful) or Asymptomatic ( painless)

  15. Microscopic: 3 or more RBCS/High power, in 2 out of 3 properly collected samples ( AUA). Prevalence ranges from 0.19% to 16.1%. Neoplasm of genitourinary tract (GU) found in about 3-5% of asymptomatic patients. No identifiable cause in about 40%.

  16. Gross ( Macroscopic, Visible, Clinical): 1 ml of blood in 1 liter of urine is visible for the patients.

  17. 22 to 40% of patients presented with asymptomatic gross haematuria are found to harbor GU neoplasm.

  18. Causes of Haematuria Varies according to: Patient Age Type: Gross or Microscopic Symptomatic or Asymptomatic The existence of risk factors for malignancy.

  19. Causes of Haematuria… Urinary tract malignancy Urothelial cancer Renal cancer Prostate cancer

  20. Causes of Haematuria… Urinary tract infection Urinary calculi Benign prostatic hyperplasia Radiation cystitis and/or nephritis Endometriosis & Vesico-Uterine Fistula Urethral polyps

  21. Causes of Haematuria… Anatomic abnormalities Arteriovenous malformation Urothelial stricture disease Ureteropelvic junction obstruction Vesicoureteral reflux Nutcracker syndrome

  22. Causes of Haematuria… Medical or renal disease Glomerulonephritis Interstitial nephritis Papillary necrosis Alport syndrome Renal artery stenosis

  23. Causes of Haematuria… Metabolic disorders Coagulation abnormalities Hypercalciuria Hyperuricosuria

  24. Causes of Haematuria… Miscellaneous Trauma Exercise-induced hematuria Benign familial haematuria Loin pain–haematuria syndrome

  25. Causes of Red-Orange urine discoloration Red colored candy and drinks

  26. Transient Microscopic Haematuria could be due to: • Vigorous Exercise • Sexual Intercourse • Viral infection • UTI • Mild Trauma • Menstrual Contamination

  27. Risk factors for Urothelial cancer in patients with microscopic haematuria Smoking history Occupational exposure to chemicals or dyes (benzenes or aromatic amines) History of gross haematuria Age greater than 40 years History of urologic disorder or disease History of irritative voiding symptoms History of urinary tract infection Analgesic abuse ( Phenacetin) History of pelvic irradiation.

  28. Haematuria Patients Work Up History • Age • Residency. • Occupation • Duration. Episodes, Urine color darkness • Painless or painful • Timing of haematuria • Clots and shape of clots • Trauma • Bleeding from other sites • Associated Symptoms urinary and Systemic • History of :Bleeding disorders, SC, TB, Bilharzias & stone disease. • Family History of : Malignancy, hematological disorders, renal diseases • Drugs • Colored food or drinks intake. • Menses, Exercise, Sexual intercourse ( Transient Microscopic). • Smoking

  29. ( Gross haematuria mandate full urological work up).

  30. Asymptomatic microscopic haematuria in children does not mandate aggressive evaluation other than long-term follow-up, whereas it is important to evaluate asymptomatic gross haematuria

  31. For young women with microscopic haematuria, symptoms and urinary finding of UTI just do: Urine culture Treat UTI Repeat MSU 6 weeks after treatment No need for further work up

  32. Initial Evaluation of Asymptomatic Microscopic Haematuria

  33. Urologic Evaluation of Asymptomatic Microscopic Haematuria Follow up by Measuring BP. MSU. Urine Cytology. U & E.

  34. Lap Investigations • MSU • Urine Culture ( Pyogenic Organisms). • Urine FOR AFB ( Tuberculosis). • Urine Cytology and Tumor markers • CBC & Hematology • U&E • LFT

  35. Radiology

  36. US

  37. US

  38. US

  39. IVU

  40. CT Urography

  41. CT Urography

  42. CT Urography

  43. CT Urography

  44. CT Urography

  45. CT Urography

  46. CT Urography

  47. When to refer to urologist: If there is a positive findings, that requires urological intervention If the patient is high risk for GU neoplasm, with no findings in the lap and radiology work up.

  48. Cystoscopy

  49. Cystoscopy

  50. Cystoscopy