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Green Chemistry . by Mina Marie Mitani. Topics of Discussion. Environmental Movement Green Chemistry Importance Areas of Research Programs and Partnerships Conclusions. Environmental Movement. Public Awareness No regulations Publications of effects and consequences Pattern Effects

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green chemistry

Green Chemistry

by Mina Marie Mitani

topics of discussion
Topics of Discussion
  • Environmental Movement
  • Green Chemistry
  • Importance
  • Areas of Research
  • Programs and Partnerships
  • Conclusions
environmental movement
Environmental Movement
  • Public Awareness
      • No regulations
      • Publications of effects and consequences
  • Pattern
      • Effects
      • Outcry
      • Laws and regulations
environmental movement4
Environmental Movement
  • “Dilution is solution”
  • Pollution Prevention Act
    • option of first choice
    • national policy of US
  • “Alternative Synthetic Pathways for Pollution Prevention”
    • design synthesis of chemicals for PP
    • collaborations, voluntary partnerships
environmental movement5
Environmental Movement
  • Approaches in recent past:
    • Reduction of risk of manufacturing and use
    • Innovative chemistries to treat wastes and remediate sites
    • New monitoring and analytical tools for detection in air, water, soils
    • New handling and containment procedures to minimize exposure
green chemistry6
Green Chemistry
  • Carrying out chemical activities, including chemical design, manufacture, use, and disposal, such that hazardous substances will not be used and generated
  • Tool in accomplishing Pollution Prevention
  • Encompasses all aspects and types of chemical processes to reduce impacts
green chemistry7
Green Chemistry
  • Green chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention
  • Design of chemical products and processes that are more environmentally benign
  • Reduction or elimination of the use or generation of hazardous substances associated with a particular synthesis or process
importance of green chemistry
Importance of Green Chemistry
  • 2 billion lbs. of chemicals were released to air land and water (USEPA) in 1994
  • Data includes only 365 of 70,000 chemicals available in commerce
  • Environmental and hazardous wastes operations => economic burden
    • environmental expenditures : cost of doing business
    • 100-150 billion $ / year for remediation in US alone
    • shift financial resources from costs to research & development
  • Promise of Green Chemistry to lower overall costs associated with environmental health and safety
areas of research
Areas of Research
  • Feedstocks / Starting Materials
  • Reagents or Transformations
  • Reaction Conditions
  • Final Product
    • inter-related, separated for incremental improvements
feedstocks starting materials
Feedstocks / Starting Materials
  • select and utilize more benign starting materials
    • reduction in amount used
    • reduction of intrinsic toxicity through structural modification / replacement
  • risks can be reduced through protective gear and control techniques, but GC may be more cost effective and safer
examples
Examples
  • Alternative Synthetic Pathways AwardFlexsys America L.P.New Process for 4-Aminodiphenylamine
  • Academic AwardTerrence J. CollinsCarnegie Mellon UniversityTAML™ Oxidant Activators: General Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide for Green Oxidation Technologies
  • Eliminate use of acids to break initial bonds
  • Phosgene replacement
alternative reagents
Alternative Reagents
  • Assessment of the hazard of reagent
  • Evaluation of synthetic transformation associated with use of specific reagents
    • determine product sensitivity
    • reaction efficiency
  • Improve reaction efficiency
  • Reduce needed quantity
    • eg. Choose catalytic reagent to stoichiometric reagent
examples13
Examples
  • Use of visible light as reagent
  • Alternative Synthetic Pathways AwardLilly Research LaboratoriesPractical Application of a Biocatalyst in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
  • Dr. Karen M. DrathsProfessor John W. FrostMichigan State UniversityUse of Microbes as Environmentally-Benign Synthetic Catalysts
  • Academic AwardTerrence J. CollinsCarnegie Mellon UniversityTAML™ Oxidant Activators: General Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide for Green Oxidation Technologies
alternative reaction conditions
Alternative Reaction Conditions
  • Reduce or eliminate solvents used in reaction media, separations, formulations
    • use of supercritical fluids as solvents
    • able to tune supercritical fluids by choosing critical region to conduct chemistry
  • Use aqueous solvent systems in place of organic solvents in chemical manufacturing
  • Use Supercritical CO2 as a solvent
  • Reduce operating temperatures
  • Must evaluate impact on case by case basis
alternative reaction conditions15
Alternative Reaction Conditions
  • Alternative Solvents and Reaction Conditions AwardNalco Chemical CompanyThe Development and Commercialization of ULTIMER®®: The First of a New Family of Water Soluble Polymer Dispersions
  • Alternative Solvents/Reaction Conditions AwardArgonne National LaboratoryNovel Membrane-Based Process for Producing Lactate Esters. Nontoxic Replacements for Halogenated and Toxic Solvents
  • Alternative Solvents/Reaction Conditions AwardImationDry View™ Imaging Systems
  • Alternative Solvents/Reaction Conditions AwardThe Dow Chemical CompanyThe Development and Commercial Implementation of 100 Percent Carbon Dioxide as an Environmentally Friendly Blowing Agent for the Polystyrene Foam Packaging Market
alternative products
Alternative Products
  • Identify part of molecule that is providing intended use and part of molecule responsible for toxicity or other hazards
  • Reduce toxicity w/o sacrificing efficacy of function
    • eliminate toxic functional groups
    • make molecule less bioavailable
  • Pharmaceutical and pesticide manufacturing
  • Change or replace products
alternative products17
Alternative Products
  • Designing Safer Chemicals AwardRohm and Haas CompanyDesigning an Environmentally Safe Marine Antifoulant
  • Small Business AwardLegacy Systems IncorporatedColdstrip™, A Revolutionary Organic Removal and Wet Cleaning  Technology
  • Designing Safer Chemicals AwardAlbright and Wilson AmericasTHPS Biocides: A New Class of Antimicrobial Chemistry
  • Designing Safer Chemicals AwardRohm and Haas CompanyThe Invention and Commercialization of a New Chemical Family of Insecticides Exemplified by CONFIRM™ Insecticide
program
Program
  • EPA Green Chemistry Program
    • fosters research, development, implementation of innovative chemical technologies for pollution prevention in BOTH a scientifically sound and cost effective manner
    • Supports fundamental chemical research, educational activities, international meetings and conferences, toll development, in partnership with academia, industry and other agencies
partnerships
Partnerships
  • Scientific organizations
  • Industry
  • Trade associations
  • Academia
  • Government
  • National Labs
  • Research centers
  • Environmental groups
  • International organizations
slide20
GCES
  • Identifies opportunities to reduce or eliminate hazardous substances
  • Suggests molecular modifications to minimize toxicity
  • Technical information on green synthesis
  • Database of useful green chemistry references
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Goal of benign chemistry
    • synthesizing classes of chemicals
    • developing reaction types (stereo-specific)
  • Dramatic increase in funding, with support expected to continue
  • Green chemistry research conducted in labs in academia, industry, and government around the world