Green Chemistry. Sponsored by:. “ Chemistry has an important role to play in achieving a sustainable civilization on earth.” — Dr. Terry Collins, Professor of Chemistry Carnegie Mellon University. Definition.
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“ Chemistry has an important role to play in achieving a sustainable civilization on earth.” — Dr. Terry Collins, Professor of ChemistryCarnegie Mellon University
Green chemistry is the design of products and processes reducing or eliminating hazardous substances.
Green Chemistry is a subset of Design for Environment applying innovative scientific solutions to product manufacturing.
Shaw’s Green Chemistry Goals
Prevention: it is best to prevent pollution/waste
2. Atom Economy: synthetic methods should maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product
3. Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses: synthetic methods should use and generate non toxic substances
Designing Safer Chemicals: products should be nontoxic & designed to effect their desired function
Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries: auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents) should be avoided and innocuous when used
Design for Energy Efficiency: Run chemical reactions at ambient temperature and pressure
7. Use of Renewable Feedstocks: raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting
8. Reduce Derivatives: Avoid unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste
Catalysis: Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents which are used in excess and work only once
10. Design for Degradation: Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products
11. Analyze in real time to prevent pollution: Include in-process real-time monitoring and control during syntheses to minimize or eliminate byproducts
12. Minimize accidents: Design chemicals and their forms (solid, liquid, gas) to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, releases, explosions, and fires
Recognizing Product Excellence:Presidential Green Chemistry Award Recipient
Shaw EcoWorx™ Carpet Tile
Shaw Industries is the world’s largest manufacturer of carpets for home and business – and leader in sustainability.
Design molecular “cup” thought to be suitable for attaining long-lived catalysts
3. Characterize broken cup and identify breaking point
4. Modify weak site
to be more robust
Designing Ligands for Oxidizing Complexes, T. J. Collins Accounts Chem. Res., 1994, 27, 279-285.
TAML® Oxidant Activators: A New Approach to the Activation of H2O2 for Environmentally Significant Problems, T. J. Collins Accounts Chem. Res., 2002, 35, 782-790
• formed from biochemically common elements
– prototype exhibits v. low toxicity
• beginning of “dial-a-lifetime” catalysis
• economical to synthesize
• usable from pH 1 to 13
• efficient users of peroxide
—fast peroxidase/slow catalase
• 10 US patents, >70 counting foreign nationalizations
• effective at 0.1 to 4 ppm = nM to low mM
• amenable to modifications for capturing novel selectivity
• currently being produced for small scale commercial uses
PULP AND PAPER
effluent AOX and color removal
halogenated aromatics and
Dye transfer inhibition,
rapid oxidation of sulfur
contaminants, other uses
Rapid destruction of chem-bio
Shaw EcoWorx Carpet
EcoWorx represented 70% of all carpet tile production at Shaw by the end of 2003
In June 2004 Shaw announced it would exit PVC use by year-end in favor of the EcoWorx sustainable metallacene catalyzed polyolefin compound.
Grinding and airflow separate backing from fiber for sustainable recycling
For further information on real world green chemistryhttp://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/1/acsdisplay.html?DOC=education\greenchem\cases.html
For introductory readings in green chemistry