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Geography 352 Urbanization in the Global South Jim Glassman Lecture #3, January 13 PowerPoint Presentation
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Geography 352 Urbanization in the Global South Jim Glassman Lecture #3, January 13 Liberalism in historical perspective Locke, Smith, Mill, Friedman Emphasis on individual property rights Marxism as a historical response to liberalism Marx, Engels, Lenin, Panitch

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Geography 352

Urbanization in the Global South

Jim Glassman

Lecture #3, January 13

liberalism in historical perspective
Liberalism in historical perspective
  • Locke, Smith, Mill, Friedman
  • Emphasis on individual property rights
marxism as a historical response to liberalism
Marxism as a historical response to liberalism
  • Marx, Engels, Lenin, Panitch
  • Emphasis on exploitation as driving force in capitalism
liberal accounts of urbanization
Liberal accounts of urbanization
  • Markets allocate resources where needed
  • States are independent of markets and can cause distortions in market operations
  • Some common goods demand state intervention (e.g., roads, education)
marxist accounts of urbanization
Marxist accounts of urbanization
  • Investment driven not by social need but by need for profit and by effective demand
  • States are expressions of class power and operate in relation to class struggles, not independently of markets
  • Fixed capital and difficulty of capital switching leads to uneven, unjust development
why do cities in global south have worse problems than in the global north
Why do cities in Global South have worse problems than in the Global North?
  • Lack of adequate capital in South? (liberal theories)
  • Uneven development (Marxist theories)
cities in the global south
Cities in the Global South
  • Primacy
    • Dominant city is excessively large compared to secondary cities
  • Parasitism
    • Dominant city drains resources from other areas, rather than generating growth
  • Overurbanization
    • Urban population growth is more rapid than GDP and/or industrial growth
urban primacy
Urban Primacy
  • Demographic
  • Functional (economic, industrial)
intra national urban hierarchies in comparative perspective
Intra-national urban hierarchies in comparative perspective
  • Modernization theory analysis
    • US taken as norm for developed countries
    • Normal course of development assumed
    • Primacy seen as part of intermediate development stage
    • Political interventions (e.g., colonialism) can distort
  • The rank-size rule
    • Fully developed countries have log-normal distribution
    • Intranational urban hierarchy relates to economic functions
primacy and socio spatial inequality
Primacy and Socio-spatial inequality
  • Primacy may express this inequality, but is it the cause?
    • inequality rooted in social relations
    • inequality expressed in, not caused by, spatial relations
  • Could primacy be altered without changing inequality?
    • examples of decentralization without greater equality
    • issues of intra-regional inequality and primacy
  • Could inequality be altered without reducing primacy?
    • possibility of reducing urban inequality in place
    • substantial national inequality might still remain
primacy and the environment
Primacy and the Environment
  • Some stresses on eco-systems from “too much” in one place
    • organic runoff pollutants in water systems
    • certain forms of air pollution (e.g., ozone)
  • Many eco-system stresses independent of concentration
    • environmental/occupational health threats
    • toxic chemicals and industrial waste
  • Could primacy be altered without reducing urban pollution?
  • Could disecologies be altered without reductions in primacy?
problems with rank size rule emphasis on primacy
Problems with rank size rule, emphasis on primacy
  • US/North America taken as norm
  • Lognormal distribution not pervasive in the Global North
generative vs parasitic cities
“Generative” vs. “parasitic” cities
  • Generative: impact on regional economic growth and cultural change is favorable
  • Parasitic: impact on regional economic growth and cultural change is unfavorable
  • Colonial contexts may have helped produce parasitism
overurbanization
“Overurbanization”
  • Urban growth > than GDP growth
  • Urbanization that leads to economic inefficiency
  • Urbanization that leads to social inequity
  • Urbanization that leads to political instability
  • Urbanization that leads to environmentally unsustainable growth
connections between concepts
Connections between concepts
  • Primate cities may be part of overurbanization but need not be
  • Primate cities could be generative or parasitic
  • Overurbanization usually is seen as connected to parasitism