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Genetic Engineering. Chapter 13. Selective breeding. Allowing animals with certain traits to breed to produce a desired offspring. Examples:. Luther Burbank (1849-1926). American botanist who developed the disease resistant Burbank potato

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selective breeding
Selective breeding
  • Allowing animals with certain traits to breed to produce a desired offspring.
  • Examples:
luther burbank 1849 1926
Luther Burbank (1849-1926)
  • American botanist who developed the disease resistant Burbank potato
  • Used process of hybridization : crossing dissimilar organisms to get best of both qualities.
inbreeding
Inbreeding
  • The controlled breeding of closely related organisms.
  • Positive effects: controlled traits and characteristics. Pure bred dogs
  • Negative effects: excessive inbreeding can produce unwanted effects because of lack of variation. Blindness in German shepherds
increasing variation
Increasing variation
  • Use radiation or chemicals
  • Can produce new strains of bacteria and new plants.
polyploidy
Polyploidy
  • Having a multiple of the normal chromosome number.
  • Example: regular chromosome number is 9. Polyploidy condition could be 18, 27, 36, etc.
dna manipulation
DNA manipulation
  • Cutting DNA
  • Copying DNA
  • Changing DNA
dna extraction
DNA Extraction
  • Where is the DNA located in a cell?
  • -the nucleus
  • First must break apart the cell membrane and nucleus to get at the DNA
cutting dna
Cutting DNA
  • Usually use a restriction enzyme : a chemical used to cut out a specific segment of DNA.
gel electrophoresis
Gel Electrophoresis
  • Placing a mixture of DNA into a gel and applying an electric current. DNA is then separated according to size.
reading the dna
Reading the DNA
  • Using a computer, fluorescent dyes, and samples of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
cutting and pasting
Cutting and Pasting
  • Use DNA synthesizers to make recombinant DNA (DNA from two different organisms spliced together)
making copies
Making copies
  • PCR polymerase.
  • Used to make multiple copies of a segment of DNA or gene.
  • Developed by Kary Mullis
transformation
Transformation
  • When a cell (usually a bacterium) takes in DNA from outside the cell.
  • Example: Griffith’s rats
plasmids
Plasmids
  • A small circular molecule of DNA
  • It often has a DNA sequence that serves as an origin of replication.
  • Contain genetic markers.
transgenic organisms
Transgenic organisms
  • When an organism contains genes from other organisms.
  • Example:
    • A tobacco plant that containd DNA from a firefly.
biotechnology
Biotechnology
  • A “new” field of biology that utilizes genetic engineering to produce new substances in the fields of health and industry.
transgenic animals
Transgenic animals
  • Livestock can grow faster, better quality of meat, resistant to disease.
  • Cows that produce human proteins in their milk.
transgenic plants
Transgenic plants
  • Usually cash crops such as cotton, corn, wheat, soybeans, etc.
  • Often incorporates bacterial DNA to make the crop resistant to disease, pests, or chemicals.
  • Ex: Bt corn
cloning
Cloning
  • Clone: a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell.
  • 1997: first mammal cloned. Dolly, the sheep.
assignment
Assignment:
  • Page 337-338
  • 1-10, 13, 16, 17, 22, 23, 32