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Principles and Issues Relating to the Interconnection of Wind Power Power System Conference, Clemson, South Carolina, March 8-11, 2005 Zhenyu Fan & Johan Enslin KEMA T&D CONSULTING 3801 Lake Boone Trail, Suit 200 Raleigh, NC 27607 Overview: Study Background Key Issues

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Principles and Issues Relating to the Interconnection of Wind Power

Power System Conference,

Clemson, South Carolina,

March 8-11, 2005

Zhenyu Fan & Johan Enslin


3801 Lake Boone Trail, Suit 200

Raleigh, NC 27607

Overview l.jpg
Overview: Wind Power

  • Study Background

  • Key Issues

  • Objectives & Scope

  • Case Studies

  • Summary

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Wind Power is growing! Wind Power

  • Germany: 12,001 MW

  • Spain: 4830 MW

  • US: 4275 MW

  • Denmark: 2880 MW

  • India: 1702 MW

Source: AWEA’s Global Market Report

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Region Wind Power

Peak Load


Installed WindMW













17 %

The Netherlands




Continental USA








New Mexico




Table 1: Example of wind systems and installed penetration levels

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Wind Power Interconnection Studies Wind Power

  • Interconnection procedures are not uniform

  • In general, interconnection procedures require:

    • to apply for a queue position;

    • system feasibility, system impact, and facilities studies;

    • interconnection and construction agreements;

    • construction of interconnection facilities, and network upgrades if required.

  • FERC governs the generation interconnection process

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Interconnected Issues: Wind Power

  • Power Flow

  • Short Circuit

  • Transient Stability

  • Electromagnetic Transient

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Interconnected Issues (Cont.): Wind Power

  • Protection

  • Power Leveling and Energy Balancing

  • Power Quality

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Network Interface Options Wind Power

  • A – Direct link, no compensation

  • B – SVC, reactive power, voltage

  • C – STATCOM, added power quality

  • D – STATCOM with battery, added power balance, trading, UPS,

  • Black-start, etc.

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Case Studies: Wind Power

  • California ISO System

  • Dutch Project

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California ISO System: Wind Power

  • CA Wind Resources

    • Areas designated "Good" are roughly equivalent to an estimated mean annual power at 10 meter height of 200 Watts/square meter to 300 W/m2 and "Excellent" to above 300 W/M2.

    • In the year 2000, wind energy in California produced 3,604 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, about 1.27 percent of the state's total electricity. That's more than enough to light a city the size of San Francisco.

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California ISO System: Wind Power

  • CA Electricity Market

    • The CA ISO 2004 Summer peak load is 44,422 MW with a minimum projected planning reserve of 16.4% and a corresponding operating reserve of 2,750 MW. Approximately 32,700 MW are thermal units, 2,600 MW are wind with the remaining 18,700 MW consisting of a mix of hydro, pumped storage and solar.

    • The 2004 base scenario forecast wind capacity for California during summer peaks is only 235 MW (9.0% of the installed wind capacity).

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Wind Power Operating Reserve and Regulation Impact Wind Power

  • Load forecasting error affects operating reserves while short-term fluctuations in load affect regulation

  • Forecasting errors should be considered in combination

  • Geographical dispersion of wind resources tend to reduce the amount of incremental load following requirements

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Wind Power Impact on Reliability and System Operation Wind Power

  • Hydro-power resources can be used for power balancing wind power plants,

  • Thermal units on the system would still be used for operating reserves.

  • System reliability and load following capability will not be affected significantly by the addition of a significant amount of wind generation.

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Wind Power Impact on Generation Wind Power

  • The decision to build a wind plant depends on many factors.

  • Capacity factor of CA ISO is 9% on an annual basis, new wind project are likely to have capacity factors in the 35-40% range.

  • The addition of large amounts of wind generation to a system would have some economic and physical impact on merchant plants in the medium to long run.

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Netherlands Project Wind Power

Major Dutch HV Network Upgrades for interconnection of a 6,000 MW offshore wind park in the North Sea

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Offshore Wind Energy In Netherlands Wind Power

  • 12% of energy within EU should be provided by renewables by the year 2010, with a possible installed wind capacity of at least 40 GW

  • 6000 MW by 2020 wind power studies

  • An energy storage system integrated with high power electronics can mitigate interconnection problems

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Storage Options for 6 GW Wind Farm Wind Power

VSC Interface

  • Based on Flow-battery technology

    • 6,000 M€, 30 years NPV, 1x1 km size

  • Not feasible by factor 10 as a single solution

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Energy Storage Wind Power

  • A 2500 MW battery plant will be required

  • Total capacity is 62 GWh

  • Based on the difference between low and high APX-values, the profits of the reduction of the number of start/stops, and avoiding the investment cost of the stabilization system, and avoiding of the unbalance cost, the project becomes feasible.

  • In this case, a seven- to eight-year break-even can be achieved,

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Summary Wind Power

  • Large-scale wind park requires a different integration approach from those used for smaller wind farms.

  • Mitigation devices are needed for the interconnection issues with distributed power

  • Key technologies can minimize the impact on the network

  • Several functions should be integrated into the functionality of the energy storage system

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Thank You ! Wind Power