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Principles and Issues Relating to the Interconnection of Wind Power Power System Conference, Clemson, South Carolina, March 8-11, 2005 Zhenyu Fan & Johan Enslin KEMA T&D CONSULTING 3801 Lake Boone Trail, Suit 200 Raleigh, NC 27607 Overview: Study Background Key Issues

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power system conference clemson south carolina march 8 11 2005

Principles and Issues Relating to the Interconnection of Wind Power

Power System Conference,

Clemson, South Carolina,

March 8-11, 2005

Zhenyu Fan & Johan Enslin

KEMA T&D CONSULTING

3801 Lake Boone Trail, Suit 200

Raleigh, NC 27607

overview
Overview:
  • Study Background
  • Key Issues
  • Objectives & Scope
  • Case Studies
  • Summary
slide3

Wind Power is growing!

  • Germany: 12,001 MW
  • Spain: 4830 MW
  • US: 4275 MW
  • Denmark: 2880 MW
  • India: 1702 MW

Source: AWEA’s Global Market Report

slide4

Region

Peak Load

MW

Installed WindMW

Penetration

Denmark

5,000

3,100

62%

Germany

77,000

14,600

19%

Spain

36,000

6,200

17 %

The Netherlands

14,000

1,000

7%

Continental USA

808,000

6,740

0.8%

Texas

63,000

1,288

2%

New Mexico

1,500

265

17%

Table 1: Example of wind systems and installed penetration levels

wind power interconnection studies
Wind Power Interconnection Studies
  • Interconnection procedures are not uniform
  • In general, interconnection procedures require:
    • to apply for a queue position;
    • system feasibility, system impact, and facilities studies;
    • interconnection and construction agreements;
    • construction of interconnection facilities, and network upgrades if required.
  • FERC governs the generation interconnection process
slide8

Interconnected Issues:

  • Power Flow
  • Short Circuit
  • Transient Stability
  • Electromagnetic Transient
slide9

Interconnected Issues (Cont.):

  • Protection
  • Power Leveling and Energy Balancing
  • Power Quality
network interface options
Network Interface Options
  • A – Direct link, no compensation
  • B – SVC, reactive power, voltage
  • C – STATCOM, added power quality
  • D – STATCOM with battery, added power balance, trading, UPS,
  • Black-start, etc.
slide11

Case Studies:

  • California ISO System
  • Dutch Project
california iso system
California ISO System:
  • CA Wind Resources
    • Areas designated "Good" are roughly equivalent to an estimated mean annual power at 10 meter height of 200 Watts/square meter to 300 W/m2 and "Excellent" to above 300 W/M2.
    • In the year 2000, wind energy in California produced 3,604 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, about 1.27 percent of the state's total electricity. That's more than enough to light a city the size of San Francisco.
california iso system13
California ISO System:
  • CA Electricity Market
    • The CA ISO 2004 Summer peak load is 44,422 MW with a minimum projected planning reserve of 16.4% and a corresponding operating reserve of 2,750 MW. Approximately 32,700 MW are thermal units, 2,600 MW are wind with the remaining 18,700 MW consisting of a mix of hydro, pumped storage and solar.
    • The 2004 base scenario forecast wind capacity for California during summer peaks is only 235 MW (9.0% of the installed wind capacity).
wind power operating reserve and regulation impact
Wind Power Operating Reserve and Regulation Impact
  • Load forecasting error affects operating reserves while short-term fluctuations in load affect regulation
  • Forecasting errors should be considered in combination
  • Geographical dispersion of wind resources tend to reduce the amount of incremental load following requirements
wind power impact on reliability and system operation
Wind Power Impact on Reliability and System Operation
  • Hydro-power resources can be used for power balancing wind power plants,
  • Thermal units on the system would still be used for operating reserves.
  • System reliability and load following capability will not be affected significantly by the addition of a significant amount of wind generation.
wind power impact on generation
Wind Power Impact on Generation
  • The decision to build a wind plant depends on many factors.
  • Capacity factor of CA ISO is 9% on an annual basis, new wind project are likely to have capacity factors in the 35-40% range.
  • The addition of large amounts of wind generation to a system would have some economic and physical impact on merchant plants in the medium to long run.
netherlands project
Netherlands Project

Major Dutch HV Network Upgrades for interconnection of a 6,000 MW offshore wind park in the North Sea

offshore wind energy in netherlands
Offshore Wind Energy In Netherlands
  • 12% of energy within EU should be provided by renewables by the year 2010, with a possible installed wind capacity of at least 40 GW
  • 6000 MW by 2020 wind power studies
  • An energy storage system integrated with high power electronics can mitigate interconnection problems
storage options for 6 gw wind farm
Storage Options for 6 GW Wind Farm

VSC Interface

  • Based on Flow-battery technology
    • 6,000 M€, 30 years NPV, 1x1 km size
  • Not feasible by factor 10 as a single solution
energy storage
Energy Storage
  • A 2500 MW battery plant will be required
  • Total capacity is 62 GWh
  • Based on the difference between low and high APX-values, the profits of the reduction of the number of start/stops, and avoiding the investment cost of the stabilization system, and avoiding of the unbalance cost, the project becomes feasible.
  • In this case, a seven- to eight-year break-even can be achieved,
summary
Summary
  • Large-scale wind park requires a different integration approach from those used for smaller wind farms.
  • Mitigation devices are needed for the interconnection issues with distributed power
  • Key technologies can minimize the impact on the network
  • Several functions should be integrated into the functionality of the energy storage system