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Discussion . Hamediseresht E . Structure of article. Title Abstract and keywords Authors Introduction Methods and Materials Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgment References. Chat Talk Dialogue Debate Discourse. Consultation Deliberation Conversation Argument Exchange of views.

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Hamediseresht E.

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Structure of article

  • Title

  • Abstract and keywords

  • Authors

  • Introduction

  • Methods and Materials

  • Discussion

  • Conclusion

  • Acknowledgment

  • References

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Exchange of views

The meaning?

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  • When most people read paper, they read the title and abstract first, then the introduction, some graphs or tables and then the discussion.


    the discussion should begin by summarizing the main findings .Then interpret the findings in relation to the introduction and finally draw conclusion.Keep the discussion to the results; don`t go beyond the data

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  • The least formalized part of an article

  • The most difficult part of an article

  • The structure is the the same for every experiment

  • It`s practice of logic and discipline

  • It`s not repeating the results

  • Since sometimes results are self-explanatory,many students find it difficult to know what material to add in this last section

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  • Simply:

    Discussion is where you

    REFER to your results …

    EXPLAIN your results …

    INTERPRET your results in light of other work in field …

    (Don`t repeat or reformulate or recapitulate results!)

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  • Answer research question

  • Support and defend answers with results


    - conflicting results you got

    - unexpected findings

    - discrepancies with other research

  • State limitations of the study

  • Establish newness

  • Announce further research

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Your findings




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  • Why the research was done?

  • Interpretation

  • Findings in association with hypothesis

  • Findings in association with other researches

  • Evaluation of scientific validity

  • Comments about meaningful results

  • Explanation of negative opinions

  • Association of topic with current sitiuation

  • Future studies

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First paragraph

** Summarize main findings

** Start by presenting the essential conclusions of your specific study

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  • What`s this?

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  • Remember inverted triangle at Introduction…!

  • There is a triangle at Discussion too, but is not inverted..!

    Basically discussion contains several parts in no particular order but roughly moving from specific (related to your experiment only) to general (how your finding fit in the larger scientific community)

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  • General structure of an article

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  • Explain whether data support your hypothesis

  • Acknowledge any anomalous data or deviations from what you expected (next slide)

  • Derive conclusions based on your findings and about the process you`re studing

  • Relate your findings to earlier work in the same area (if you can)

  • Explore the theoritical and practical implications of your findings

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  • Explain whether the data support your hypothesis

    You should begin this part of discussion by explicitly stating the relationships or correlations your data indicate between the independent and dependent variables.


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  • If you tested solubility at various temperatures, you could start this section by noting that the rate of solubility increased as the temperature increased.If your initial hypothesis surmised that temperature change would not affect solubility,you would then say something like:

    ” The hypothesis that temperature change would not affect solubility was not supported by the data”

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  • Make sure you are very explicit about the relationship between the evidence and the conclusions you draw from it.

  • Tell your readers exactly how you got from point A (was the hypothesis supported) to point B (yes or no)

  • You should defend your claim !

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  • Occasionally it is appropriate to introduce new data in the discussion section.Give this only as a description of unpublished results, and make it very clear that `s only a preliminary evidence.This should not be used as a means to publish your new materials, and should only be included to make a point,perhaps confirming your major conclusions or to show the direction your work is going.

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  • Abstract >>> Past tense

  • Theory >>> Past tense

  • Methods & Materials >>> Past tense

  • Discussion >>> Alternates! :

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Past tense

Your current results

Other studies that are preliminary or cast into doubt by your studies

Present tense

Results of previous studies that are well-known and confirmed

Interpretation of your results


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  • Example:

    The neuroprotective mechanism of riluzole is not fully understood.Riluzole inhibits glutamate release from presynaptic nerve terminals (Martine et al.,1993).In the present study , riluzole inhibited the sodium channels; sodium channels mediate a number of functions wihin the CNS,including apoptosis. This may be consistent with the recent finding that riluzole inhibited apoptosis in the CNS of the transgenic mouse model of ALS (Garney et al ., 1999)

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  • Last paragraph

    - Draw conclusion

    - Mention to theoritical implications

    - Mention to practical implications

    - Extend your findings to other species

    - Point to broader topics and need to further researches

    - Show that you`ll continue research on it

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Some advices

  • Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study

  • Compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies

  • State the limitation of study

  • If your method is new and strange,explain more and try to defend it

  • In randomized clinical trials mention to:

    - sources of potential bias

    - imprecisions

    - dangers associated with multiplicity of analysis

    and outcome

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Some advices(continued)

  • Be sure that all conclusions are supported by results(give evidence for each conclusion)

  • Make it clear that are major hypotheses in the field supported by your research or contradicted?

  • Although there may be some repetition of information in the results and discussion section, it should kept to minimum

  • Point out any exception or any lack of correlation

  • Discussion is often far too long

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1) Don`t write an unabridged and long criticism on previous researches

2) Avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes the appropriate economic data and analysis

3) Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed

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3) Don`t omit other previous good evidences to show your study is unique …don`t magnify it!

4) Don`t explain the concepts more than what is necessary

5) Discussion part is not for review of literature

6) Don`t be shy! Discuss the theoritical implications & practical applications of your work

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7) Don`t hide unexpected results…they`re useful

8) Keep the discussion to the results,don`t go beyond data

9) Don`t ignore or bury the major issue

10) don`t over generalize

11) Don`t ignore deviations in your data

12) Avoid speculation that can`t be tested in the foreseeable future

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13) Be direct; avoid qualifying phrases such as “it appears that…” or “our data suggest that…”

14) Labs are not as practical tests of undeniable scientific truths, so don`t say that the hypothesis was “proved” or “disproved” or that it was “correct” or “incorrect”.

words like “supported”, “indicated” and “suggested” are more acceptable ways to evaluate your hypothesis

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1.Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: writing and editing for biomedical publication 2003

2.How to write a paper (BMJ) ,

George M Hall

3.How to write and publish papers in the medical sciences ,

Edward J Huth

4.Writing research papers

Paul Stapleton

5.Rules of thumb for writing research article

6.Style points for scientific writing

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8.Writing up research online

Language center

9.Academic writing : Scientific report (writer`s handbook)

10.Writing a scientific paper

Georgian court college

11.Writing and publishing research articles

University of North Dakota

12.Basic composition of a biomedical research paper


13.Writing scientific research report

The writing center