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Chapter 12 Project Communication and Documentation. Learning Objectives. Suggestions for enhancing personal communications Effective listening Various types of project meetings Formal project presentations Project reports Project documentation. 2. 2. 2. Real World Example.

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learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Suggestions for enhancing personal communications
  • Effective listening
  • Various types of project meetings
  • Formal project presentations
  • Project reports
  • Project documentation




real world example
Real World Example
  • Vignette: Three Words to the Wise: Communicate, Communicate, Communicate
  • You can’t sell project management – or yourself – without good communication skills.
  • The number one skill that companies are looking for is simply good communication skills.
  • With poor communications projects are doomed to fail.
  • Your ability to communicate effectively is perhaps the single most determinant of your success.




real world example1
Real World Example
  • Vignette: Learning to Listen
  • Effective listening can make the difference between success and failure.
  • There are two types of people: talkers and listeners.
  • The following are categories of ineffective listeners: Chatterboxes, Star Trekkers, Appeasers, Wanderers, Nervous Nellies, and Bafflers.
  • When you listen you learn and you make better decisions.
personal communication
Personal Communication
  • Can occur through words or nonverbal behavior.
  • Can be face to face or use some other medium.
  • Can be oral or written.



oral communication
Oral Communication
  • Provides a forum for discussion.
  • Body language and tone are important.
  • Body language can be used by the listener to give feedback to the speaker.
  • Body language can be positive or negative.



oral communication cont
Oral Communication (Cont.)
  • Awareness of other cultures’ customs is important.
  • One must not to use offensive remarks.
  • Oral communication should be straightforward.
  • The timing of oral communication is important.


written communication
Written Communication
  • Carried out through internal memos and external letters.
  • Are ways to efficiently communicate with a group.
  • May be appropriate as a follow-up to a face-to-face conversation or a phone call.
  • Should be used mostly to inform, confirm, and request.
  • Should be clear and concise.


effective listening
Effective Listening
  • The heart of communication is not words, but understanding.
  • Not only to be understood, but also to understand.
  • Half of making communication effective is listening.


common barriers to effective listening
Common Barriers to Effective Listening
  • Pretending to listen
  • Distractions
  • Bias and closed-mindedness
  • Impatience
  • Jumping to conclusions


improving listening skills
Improving Listening Skills
  • Focus on the person talking.
  • Engage in active listening.
  • Ask questions.
  • Don’t interrupt.


types of project meetings
Types of Project Meetings
  • Status review meetings
  • Problem-solving meetings
  • Technical design review meetings


status review meetings
Status Review Meetings
  • Usually led or called by the project manager.
  • The primary purposes are to inform, to identify problems, and to identify action items.
  • Should be held on a regularly scheduled basis.


status review meetings subjects for discussion
Status Review Meetings Subjects for Discussion
  • Accomplishments since last meeting
  • Cost, schedule, and work:
    • Scope
    • Status
    • Trends
    • Forecasts
    • Variances


status review meetings subjects for discussion cont
Status Review MeetingsSubjects for Discussion (Cont.)
  • Corrective actions
  • Opportunities for improvement
  • Action item assignment


problem solving meetings the process
Problem-Solving Meetings: The Process
  • Develop a problem statement.
  • Identify potential causes of the problem.
  • Gather data and verify the most likely causes.
  • Identify possible solutions.
  • Evaluate the alternative solutions.
  • Determine the best solution.
  • Revise the project plan.
  • Implement the solution.
  • Determine if the problem has been solved.


technical design review meetings
Technical Design Review Meetings
  • A preliminary design review meeting
  • A final design review meeting


effective meetings before the meeting
Effective Meetings Before the Meeting
  • Determine:
    • whether a meeting is really necessary.
    • the purpose of the meeting.
    • who needs to participate in the meeting.
  • Distribute an agenda.
  • Prepare visual aids or handouts.
  • Make room & visual aid arrangements.


effective meetings during the meeting
Effective Meetings During the Meeting
  • Start the meeting on time.
  • Designate a note-taker.
  • Review the purpose and the agenda.
  • Facilitate—don’t dominate.
  • Summarize the results at the end.
  • Do not overrun the scheduled meeting time.
  • Evaluate the meeting process.


effective meetings after the meeting
Effective Meetings After the Meeting
  • Publish the meeting results within 24 hours after the meeting.
  • The summary document should be concise.
  • It should confirm decisions that were made and list the action items.


preparing for a presentation
Preparing for a Presentation
  • Determine the purpose of the presentation
  • Know the audience.
  • Make an outline.
  • Use simple language.
  • Prepare notes or a final outline to use during the presentation.


preparing for a presentation cont
Preparing for a Presentation (Cont.)
  • Practice, practice, practice.
  • Prepare visual aids and test them.
  • Make copies of handout materials.
  • Request the audiovisual equipment well in advance.
  • Go into the meeting room when it’s empty and get a feel for the surroundings.


delivering a presentation
Delivering a Presentation
  • Expect a bit of nervousness.
  • Know the first two or three sentences of your presentation.
  • Talk to the audience, not at it.
  • Speak clearly and confidently.
  • Use appropriate animation.
  • Do not stand in front of your visual aids.


delivering a presentation cont
Delivering a Presentation (Cont.)
  • Build interest in your presentation.
  • Keep to the key points in your outline.
  • Know your closing lines.
  • Allow time for interaction with the audience.
  • When responding to questions, be sincere, candid, and confident.


types of project reports
Types of Project Reports
  • Progress reports
  • Final report


progress reports
Progress Reports
  • May include:
    • Accomplishments since prior report.
    • Current status of project performance.
    • Progress toward resolution of problems.
    • Planned corrective actions.
    • Problems or potential problems.
    • Milestones expected to be reached during next reporting period.


final report
Final Report
  • May include:
    • Customer’s original need.
    • Original project objective.
    • Degree to which the original project objective was met.
    • Brief description of the project.
    • Future considerations.
    • A list of all deliverables provided to the customer.


preparing useful reports
Preparing Useful Reports
  • Make your reports concise.
  • Write as you would speak.
  • Put the most important points first.
  • Use graphics where possible.
  • Pay as much attention to the format of the report as to the content.


project documentation and controlling changes
Project Documentation and Controlling Changes
  • Many other documents may be created.
  • Revisions can result from changes initiated by the customer or by the project team.
  • Some changes are trivial; others are major.
  • Various project documents will be revised to incorporate changes.
  • Note when the revision was made and by whom on all documents.
  • It is important to distribute updated documents in a timely manner.