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Bureaucracy. Federal Bureaucracy. Largest part of the federal government Fastest growing part of the federal government Least subject to democratic control. Overview. Rationale For Organization Of Cabinet Independent Executive Agencies Independent Regulatory Agencies

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federal bureaucracy
Federal Bureaucracy
  • Largest part of the federal government
  • Fastest growing part of the federal government
  • Least subject to democratic control
overview
Overview
  • Rationale For
  • Organization Of
    • Cabinet
    • Independent Executive Agencies
    • Independent Regulatory Agencies
    • Government Corporations
  • Staffing
  • Procedures
rationale
Rationale
  • Promote more efficient distribution of government services
  • Look at basic bureaucratic structure
slide5

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Theory

rationale6
Rationale
  • Efficiency obtained through:
    • Hierarchy/Chain of Command
    • Specialization and Expertise
    • Impersonal Relations
    • Standard Operating Procedures
cabinet departments
Cabinet Departments
  • Cabinet Departments
    • 15 Cabinet Departments

AgricultureCommerceDefense

EducationEnergyHHS

Homeland SecHUDInterior

JusticeLabor State

TransportationTreasuryVA

cabinet departments8
Cabinet Departments
  • Defense is the largest in terms of personnel (664,524) and budget
  • Education is the smallest department (4,567)
    • FY 2007 Budgets by Department
independent executive agencies
Independent Executive Agencies
  • IEAs are agencies who report directly to the president but stand independent of the federal bureaucracy

e.g.,

    • CIA
    • EPA
    • NASA
independent regulatory agency
Independent Regulatory Agency
  • Agency substantially independent of both the rest of the executive branch and Congress
  • Usually dedicated to regulating a narrow area of public policy
    • e.g., Fed FCC FTC NLRB, EEOC
government corporations
Government Corporations
  • Government owned business designed as a for-profit enterprise
  • e.g., FDIC, TVA, USPS, AmTrak, PBS
staffing
Staffing
  • Spoils System
    • Job appointments given over to executive branch
    • Jobs awarded on the basis of political ties and fealty
staffing13
Staffing
  • Merit System
    • 1883 Pendleton Act (Civil Service Reform Act)
      • Jobs awarded on basis of merit/qualifications
      • Created Civil Service Commission to administer personnel decisions (hire/pay)
staffing14
Staffing
  • Civil Service Reform Act (1978)
  • Merit Systems Protection Board

Office of Personnel Mangement

functions
Functions
  • Bureaucracies are in some ways a “mini” government unto unthemselves
    • administrative
      • implementation of legislative and executive policies
    • quasi legislative
      • proposed rules
    • quasi judicial
      • enforcement of rules
functions16
Functions
  • Bureaucrats can have important role in shaping public policy
    • they can support the president with information
    • they can shape presidential options with information provided
    • they can undermine the president with information and actions
functions17
Functions
  • “Whistleblower” protection
    • Enacted originally in 1989, renewed and amended since then
    • Protects employees who disclose wasteful spending, discrimination, unsafe working conditions, illegal activities, etc. at place of employment, including federal agencies
functions18
Functions
  • Bureaucrats have a crucial role to play in development of policy considerations
  • Main players in public policy are:
    • legislative
    • executive
    • interest groups involved on issue
functions19
Functions

Bureaucrats

Congressional committees

Interest Groups

functions20
Functions
  • “Public” policy becomes less concerned over issues related to the broad public
  • Specific groups affected by the proposed policy and policy changes dictate public policy
  • Once programs are created, it is very difficult to remove them
functions21
Functions

Angora wool subsidies

  • 1954 National Wool Act
  • 1960 wool removed from list of “strategic materials”
  • 1989 recommendation to kill program costing $230 million/year (DOA)
  • 1993 Senate passed recommendation to kill
  • 1994 main program killed, but...
  • 2008 program continues in downscaled form (special assistance loans to producers)
bureaucratic reform
Bureaucratic Reform
  • Sunset Laws
    • Timed phase out of government programs unless have explicit renewal provision enacted
  • Sunshine Laws
    • Open bureaucratic proceedings to greater public scrutiny and access
  • Privatization
    • Turn government programs over to the private sector
    • Greater efficiency of market forces will produce better service at a cheaper cost to taxpayers