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BILINGUAL MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION. Kathee M. Christensen Northern Illinois University April, 2004. Linguistic Diversity in the U.S. More than 325 languages used at home 175 American Indian languages Over 6 million children ages 5-17 speak languages other than English at home.

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bilingual multicultural education

BILINGUAL MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION

Kathee M. Christensen

Northern Illinois University

April, 2004

linguistic diversity in the u s
Linguistic Diversity in the U.S.
  • More than 325 languages used at home
  • 175 American Indian languages
  • Over 6 million children ages 5-17 speak languages other than English at home
cultural diversity
Cultural Diversity
  • Exists at the national and local levels
  • Requires that teachers view children “through a different lens.”
  • Creates a “win – win” situation in the classroom
culture
Culture
  • An historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols,
  • A system of inherited conceptions (used to) communicate, perpetuate, and develop knowledge about and attitudes toward life.
      • Geertz, 1973
slide5
Culture emerges through social interaction.
  • Typically, culture is shared by members of a family unit.

What might be some consequences when a child and parent do not share all aspects of their cultural identities?

anthropological categories
Anthropological categories
  • “BIG” C CULTURE: surface aspects of a culture; readily apparent to casual observers
  • (e.g. “Belles Artes,” “food, fiestas and famous people, or gender, race, size, age)
  • “small c” culture: in depth knowledge and understanding of a culture; shared values (e.g. social practices, language, perspectives)
  • “No se deje dar gato por liebre!”
multiculturalism
Multiculturalism
  • Individual level
      • Self identified cultural components
  • Group level
      • Representation of several cultural identities
  • Attitude toward others (absence of ethnocentrism)
how do you define yourself culturally
How do you define yourself, culturally?
  • Family order
  • Place of birth
  • Ethnic/ cultural heritage
  • Gender
  • Deaf / hearing
education
Education
  • Controversy over which bilingual approach is “best.”
  • Successful programs make extensive use of additive bilingual AND immersion techniques (Thomas & Collier, 1996)
parallels between signed and spoken bilingual education
Parallels between signed and spoken bilingual education
  • Attitudes of families
    • English-only programs
    • Value of heritage (natural, native) language
  • Shared responsibilities for concept formation (Tabors, 1997)
  • Potential for two-way bilingual education programs
legislation
Legislation
  • Brown vs. Board of Education, 1954
    • Equal access to educational opportunity
  • Bilingual education act, 1968
    • Equal education for linguistic minorities
  • IDEA Amendments, 1997
    • Assessment must be “in the child’s native language or other mode of communication.”
teacher preparation
Teacher Preparation
  • 75 CED certified DHH teacher preparation programs in the U.S.
  • 7 self report having a class that focuses on multicultural issues in deafness
  • 27 self report that multicultural issues are infused across the curriculum
  • 41 NR or no focus on the issues
question
QUESTION:

In our increasingly diverse society, where are teachers of children who are deaf getting the vital information that they need regarding multicultural populations?

supreme court opinion on diversity in higher education
Supreme Court opinion on diversity in higher education
  • U. of Michigan decision: diversity prepares students for citizenship in an increasingly diverse workforce and society
national standards
National Standards

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)

ASL is one of ACTFL’s LCT languages

ACTFL-ESL, K-12 standards

ACTFL-ASL, K-12 standards in process

national and regional organizations
National and regional organizations
  • NABE
  • CABE
  • CAID??
    • Multicultural SIG has been eliminated
action research
Action research
  • Ethnographic studies in classrooms
  • Star Schools Project
  • Residential schools as research sites

How do those in leadership roles within schools end up mediating between reform plans (systems and structures) and actual practices?

assessment
Assessment
  • Access to the general curriculum
  • Linguistically biased assessment
  • Equal outcomes for graduation
  • Children “left behind”?
trilingual education
TRILINGUAL EDUCATION
  • Videotaped series for Spanish speaking parents of deaf children
what have we learned
What have we learned?
  • Philosophy
  • Language proficiency
  • Multiculturalism
  • Authentic assessment
  • Metalinguistics
clarification of philosophy
Clarification of Philosophy
  • CED standards now require a philosophy statement
  • Program selection data
    • Oral-aural
    • Comprehensive
    • Bilingual ASL-English
language requirements in teacher preparation
Language Requirements in Teacher Preparation
  • Entrance and exit requirements for BOTH ASL and English
  • Addition of ASL Linguistics and Literature courses
  • What about other spoken and signed languages?
assessment30
Assessment
  • Qualitative methodology (e.g. NaVCA)
  • Multiple Intelligences theory (thematic curricula)
  • Observation of nonverbal cognitive behavior, e.g. problem solving
  • Observation of nonverbal and verbal communication acts
metalinguistics
Metalinguistics
  • Early awareness of bilingualism (e.g. word walls, story telling)
  • Natural and second language distinctions
technology
Technology
  • Polycom Via Video
  • ASL CDs for parents and others
  • Internet access at home and at school
  • Smart Board
collaborative action research
Collaborative Action Research
  • Children who are deaf with families who do not speak English or sign ASL
  • Children who are deaf in balanced settings with children who are hearing (Day care, Preschool, K-1)
  • Star Schools Project
slide41
“I am concerned bout human dignity, people who are persecuted, threatened with destruction, the aborigines of Australia. Each minority has a unique life experience that must be taught to the large entities by which the world today tends to define itself.”
          • -Francois Cheng
for further information
For further information:
  • http://www.rohan.sdsu.edu/~deafed/
  • kchriste@mail.sdsu.edu