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origin of flowers and fruits angiosperms (seeds inside fruits fruits develop from flowers at least 140 my ago coevolution w/animals--> diversification animal pollination & seed dispersal agriculture model organism for research Arabidopsis small genome (sequenced)

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Presentation Transcript
origin of flowers and fruits
origin of flowers and fruits
  • angiosperms (seeds inside fruits
  • fruits develop from flowers
  • at least 140 my ago
  • coevolution w/animals--> diversification
  • animal pollination & seed dispersal
  • agriculture
model organism for research arabidopsis
model organism for research Arabidopsis
  • small genome (sequenced)
  • fast lifecycle (genetics)
  • small size (fits in small space)
flower
flower
  • shoot modified for reproduction
  • parts are modified leaves
  • sepals protect
  • petals attract pollinators
  • stamens have pollen
  • carpels have ovules
fruit
fruit
  • ovules inside ovary
  • ovary develops into fruit
  • fruit is mature ovary with seeds
  • fruit attracts seed dispersers
angiosperm life cycle
angiosperm life cycle
  • further reduction in gametophyte
    • no antheridia OR ARCHEGONIA
  • sperm + egg = zygote AND
  • extra sperm fuses with 2 other nuclei
  • makes stored food: endosperm (3n)
  • food-->cotyledons, or not (eg corn)
angiosperm seed
angiosperm seed

seed coat (2n)

endosperm (3n)

embryo (2n)

embryo is new sporophyte

endosperm is stored food

gymnosperms angiosperms
gymnosperms angiosperms
  • pollen grains
  • ovules
  • seeds (w/stored food)
  • food is megagphyte food is endosperm
  • food always made food only if fertilized
  • cones flowers
  • seeds on scale seeds in fruit
types of flower
types of flower
  • flowers solitary or in cluster = inflorescence
  • grasses infls. have tiny flowers, wind pollination
    • corn: many stigmas (silks), one /flower, each kernel is fruit
  • examples of inflorescences:
  • 1) catkin = dangling infl. (eg. oak)
    • tiny flowers, wind pollination
  • 2) composite “flower” = infl.
    • (eg sunflower) big, attract pollinator
    • each flower has own carpel (& fruit)
flowers pollinators
flowers & pollinators
  • showy (esp red), nectar, NOT fragrant-- birds
  • colorless, fragrant-- beetles, nocturnal moths, bats
flowers pollinators10
flowers & pollinators
  • smell & look like dead meat-- flies
  • eg Titan arum—giant stinky infl.
  • fly pollination
  • male flowers (top)
  • female flowers
  • w/fly larvae
  • bird-dispersed fruits
slide11

Thermal Images of Titan

heat mimics rotting carcass, disperses smell

images by Frank Landis

http://www.news.wisc.edu/titanarum/facts.html

co evolution orchids
co-evolution: orchids
  • flower shapes accomodate certain insects
  • Madagascar orchid, 30 cm tube
  • Darwin predicted pollinator
  • hawkmoth discovered
seed dispersal
seed dispersal
  • wind: orchids, dandelion, maple
  • animals
  • nutritious fruits w/changes in color, sweetness
  • burrs (plant velcro)

coffee