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Evolution of Positioning Services for Inland Waterways Christoph Amlacher October 17, 2007 E-Navigation Conference, Oslo
Introduction • River Information Services (RIS) are being implemented on European rivers • Many RIS Services are based on GPS • GPS has deficiencies: accuracy, integrity, availability • Results from the MARUSE Trials in Serbia • IALA DGPS vs. AIS Msg. 17 DGPS • EGNOS and Galileo are promising alternatives
Administer federal waterways Development of Inland navigation TrafficManagement via donau is ... • ... the Austrian Waterway Management Company • ... owned by the Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology • ... responsible for 350 km Danube waterway
River Information Services (RIS) Telematics Systems and Information Services in order to increase the safety and efficiency of inland waterway transport
EU RIS Directive Directive 2005/44/EC on harmonised River Information Services (RIS) • Necessary legal framework for RIS implementation • Standardisation of ship equipment • Standardisation of data exchange • Minimum requirements for RIS • Publication in official journal: September 30, 2005 • In force since: October 20, 2005
RIS Services • Navigation and guidance support • Tactical Traffic Image (TTI) • Guided approach to locks • Traffic Management • Strategic Traffic Information (STI) • Tracking and Surveillance • Law enforcement • Calamity abatement • Accident reconstruction
Current Status of RIS • RIS Implementation projects running in most Danube countries and in France and The Netherlands • Land infrastructure: Implementation of AIS base stations makes good progress • Ship side: • AIS transponders not widely used • Austria started a program to equip vessels (approx. 300 vessels) • For 2008 a mandatory carriage of AIS is planned for the Austrian Danube
DoRIS in Austria Location overview 23 Base Stations 90km Two DGPS Base stations
Current use of GNSS • GPS is not widely used on inland vessels • The introduction of RIS stimulates the equipping of vessels with AIS transponders • GPS is not suitable for navigation purposes due to lack of accuracy, integrity and availability • Local DGPS services (e.g. via AIS Msg. 17 or IALA DGPS) are only available in some countries
MARUSE trials: Lock of Djerdap I • Two locks exist on each side of the dam • Each lock has two lock chambers 30m 34m 310m
Performance Assessment • GPS vs. GPS with LE • Lock approach
Standalone Horizontal Accuracy - GPS and GPS/Galileo • GPS: • Dropouts = 0.7% • 164s in 6 hours • GPS/Galileo • Dropouts = 0.2% • 60s in 6 hours
MARUSE Conclusions • GPS standalone is not sufficient to provide accurate and reliable navigation to inland waterway users, in particular in the vicinity of river infrastructure • Signal shading and multipath degrade the position solution rapidly • Local Element based on AIS showed an improvement of the performance, multipath and signal blocking are still a problem • Navigation performance is strongly correlated to the number of received satellite signals • Galileo will significantly increase the positioning performance
Performance Requirements • In the project MARUSE the IMO A.915 (22) requirements have been analysed and amended to meet the RIS requirements from PIANC.
Future Systems • EGNOS and Galileo • Accuracy requirement can be met • Integrity information adds the necessary reliability to the system • A hybrid GPS / Galileo solution provides improved signal availability • Dual system use (Galileo/GPS) offers protection against loss of service due to interference or system failure
Local DGNSS • IALA DGNSS • Inland IALA DGNSS coverage currently only in Germany • Implementation cost are very high • Additional ship-side hardware required • DGNSS via AIS Msg. 17 • Utilizes existing AIS architecture • No additional ship-side hardware necessary if AIS transponder is onboard • Implemented in Austria and soon in Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia and Serbia
Future Systems an System Mix Redundancy of systems and data transmission are key elements of future solutions
Upgrade of Ship Equipment • For the upgrade of the ship equipment two scenarios are feasible: • Scenario 1: Integrated solution • Scenario 2: Solution with external positioning sensor
Upgrade of Shore Infrastructure • Upgrade to DGNSS provision via AIS Msg. 17 • Advantages: • Installation and operational cost are low as long as existing AIS infrastructure is used • Better performance in comparison to IALA DGNSS as distance between user and reference station is shorter • No additional ship-side equipment necessary • EGNOS retransmission possible • Disadvantages: • Additional load to the AIS channels
Outlook • Short term (2008-2012): • Implementation of AIS-based DGNSS is recommended • Upgrade to EGNOS for users in areas with no DGNSS service available • Mid term (2012-2016): • Upgrade to Galileo is strongly recommendedBenefits: signal availability, integrity, robustness against interference and system failure • Long term (past 2016): • Modernized GPS (second civil frequency, integrity ?) and the availability of other systems (GLONASS, COMPASS) provide options for the future.
Conclusion • RIS are a useful tool to increase safety and efficiency on European rivers • The upgrade from the current GPS-based solution to EGNOS and Galileo is recommended as the present system is lacking a reliable and accurate positioning component • The increase of the quality and reliability of the positioning will enable enhanced services and address additional user groups • Land side DGNSS should be implemented to provide terrestrial augmentation information to users • Redundancy of systems and data transmission are key elements of future solutions
Christoph Amlachervia donau – Österreichische Wasserstraßen-Gesellschaft mbHA-1220 Wien, Donau-City-Straße 1 (Austria)Tel +43 50 4321 1608, Fax +43 50 4321 email@example.com, www.via-donau.org