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Nomads & Crisis, 2000-1200 BCE . Climate Change Crisis, 2000 BCE Nomad Invasions Formation of Territorial States IDs: Vedic Age, 1500-500BCE, Shang Dynasty, territorial state, oracle bones, Hammurabi , Hammurabi, r. 1792-1750 BCE. Argument.

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nomads crisis 2000 1200 bce
Nomads & Crisis, 2000-1200 BCE
  • Climate Change Crisis, 2000 BCE
  • Nomad Invasions
  • Formation of Territorial States

IDs: Vedic Age, 1500-500BCE, Shang Dynasty, territorial state, oracle bones, Hammurabi, Hammurabi, r. 1792-1750 BCE

argument
Argument

Climate change around 2000 BCE caused crisis which caused the breakdown of riverine civilizations and triggered nomadic invasions. After the crisis, nomads emerged as the rulers of territorial states, which were more militaristic than the cultures they succeeded.

3500 2000 bce 3 types of cultures
3500-2000 BCE: 3 Types of Cultures

Village Agriculture

Pastoral Nomads

Riverine Cultures/ Civilizations

i 2000 bce climate change disaster
I. 2000 BCE: Climate change  disaster
  • Drought
  • Food shortage
  • Drier climate
ii nomads invade riverine cultures 2000 1600 bce
II. Nomads invade riverine cultures, 2000-1600 BCE

A. Nomad Technologies

Horse

Chariot

Iron (1000 BCE)

b south asia vedic nomads invade ca 1500 bce
B. South Asia: Vedic Nomads Invade, ca. 1500 BCE
  • Indo-Europeans
  • Aryans

Vedic Age, 1500-500 BCE

1 vedic people
1. Vedic People
  • Horses
  • Chariots
  • Iron tools & weapons
  • Pastoral  agricultural economy
ii formation of territorial states 1600
II. Formation of Territorial States (1600)

A. Characteristics

  • Ruled by charioteer (nomad) elites
  • More warlike
  • Expansive
  • Definite borders
b a state has
B. A State has:

Large territory

Definite borders

Dynastic kingship

Army (charioteer elites)

Government bureaucracy

slide16
Ruling dynasty
  • Army with horses & chariots
  • Tombs
  • Palaces
royal projects
Royal Projects
  • Bronze Metallurgy
religious authority
Religious Authority
  • Shang state was a patrimonial theocracy.
  • Divination
  • Oracle bones
  • Control of diviners & scribes
  • Ancestor worship
  • Di (High God, founding ancestor of Shang family)
d building the state
D. Building the State

Problems:

  • Control of Conquered People
2 control of army regions
2. Control of Army & Regions
  • Hittites
  • Anatolia
  • Hattusilis I
  • Babylon
e state projects
E. State Projects
  • Centralized rule in king’s hands

2. Collect taxes or tribute

Hammurabi, r. 1792-1750 BCE

exaction of tribute
Exaction of Tribute
  • Service from elites (bureaucracy or army
  • Agricultural produce & labor from commoners
argument1
Argument

Climate change around 2000 BCE caused crisis which caused the breakdown of riverine civilizations and triggered nomadic invasions. After the crisis, nomads emerged as the rulers of territorial states, which were more militaristic than the cultures they succeeded.