Policy Making At the end of the session, student is able to: 1. Define policy and its characteristics, 2. Explain policy questions, its aspects and paradox, 3. Differentiate policy formation, policy decision, political analysis of policy, & policy research and evaluation, 4. Explain dilemmas influencing polity in terms of globalization, migration, individualism, political agency, and ecological problems, and 5. Differentiate various polity approaches in policy making
What is Policy? Simply as a vision of where we want to go and guidelines for getting there (First, 1992: p. 14) It is wide rather than narrow, long term rather than short term, and that it involves leadership The leader is needed to paint the vision that becomes the policy statements
Characteristics of Policy Statement 1. Statement of position, not statement of procedure 2. Apply to a clearly defined population 3. No specific time reference 4. Apply to a specific area whereby the policy making body has authority/ influence/ control
Megatrends (John Naisbitt 1982) From Industrial To Information Age Force Technology High Tech/ Touch National Economy World Economy Short term Long term planning Centralization Decentralization Institutional help Self-help Representative Participatory Hierarchies Networking North South Either/ Or Multiple Option
Wawasan 2020(Sembilan Cabaran) 1. Mewujudkan negara Malaysia bersatu yang mempunyai matlamat dikongsi bersama 2. Mewujudkan masyarakat yang berjiwa bebas, tenteram dan maju dengan keyakinan terhadap diri sendiri, bangga dengan apa yang ada dan dicapai serta gagah menghadapi pelbagai masalah
Wawasan 2020(Sembilan Cabaran) 3. Mewujud dan membangunkan masyarakat demokratik yang matang, mengamalkan satu bentuk persefahaman matang, demokrasi Malaysia berasaskan masyarakat yang boleh menjadi contoh kepada banyak negara membangun 4. Mewujudkan masyarakat yang sepenuhnya bermoral dan beretika
Wawasan 2020(Sembilan Cabaran) 5. Mewujudkan masyarakat liberal dan bertolak ansur, rakyat pelbagai kaum bebas mengamalkan idea, kebudayaan dan kepercayaan agama masing-masing dan pada masa yang sama meletakkan kesetiaan mereka kepada satu negara. 6. Mewujudkan masyarakat saintifik dan progresif, mempunyai daya perubahan tinggi dan memandang ke depan, yang bukan sahaja menjadi pengguna teknologi tetapi juga penyumbang kepada tamadun saintifik dan teknologi masa depan
Wawasan 2020(Sembilan Cabaran) 7. Mewujudkan masyarakat penyayang dan budaya menyayangi, iaitu sistem sosial yang mengutamakan kepentingan masyarakat, kebajikan insan tidak akan berkisar kepada negara atau orang perseorangan tetapi sekeliling sistem keluarga yang kukuh
Wawasan 2020(Sembilan Cabaran) 8. Memastikan masyarakat yang adil dalam bidang ekonomi 9. Mewujudkan masyarakat makmur yang mempunyai ekonomi bersaing, dinamik, giat dan kental.
Etiology of Policy Questions Arises from conflict among humans over the distribution of goods, i.e. conflicts of interest. But, it lies in the incompatibility of the actual goods that human beings seek. Ask how to allocate such goods? The allocation is the business of politics. No policy without politics nor politics without policy
Etiology of Policy Questions Policy questions is different from constitutional, moral questions, and questions aimed at forming the set of alternatives from which policies might be selected. Policy process involved policy analysis, formation, decision as well as the political analysis of policy
I. Policy Questions Is a request for a fairly stable, but modifiable, line of action aimed at securing an optimal adjustment of the conflict between different goods, all of which must be pursued, but which, taken together, cannot all be maximized (Green, 1994). Can only be formulated if we can state the set of values or goods from which the question arises.
Policy Issues “Nested” within a set of mutually incompatible values or goods. Consider the issues surrounding the imposition of UPU’s entrance requirements: ~ Levels of attainment racially or ethnically balanced ~ High academic achievement, and ~ Culturally pluralistic communities Maximizing any one of these goods, will inhibit the advancement of the others. The policy problem arises by accepting all aims of education, and yet they cannot all be maximized.
Policy Issues No technical solution to policy questions. It is practical questions, never theoretical. It is a statement of what we should do. Information and analyses can improve decision of action. But policy questions can be answered even without such information.
Aspects of Policy Questions 1. Scarcity 2. Conflict of goods 3. Policy, Politics, and Utopia
1. Scarcity Why we need a policy? 1. Increasing the satisfactions available to human beings – increased productivity ~ can be balanced by abundance. 2. Doing something about their desires – improved moral and discipline ~ can be made to meet not by the satisfaction of wants, but by their proper and harmonious composition. Thus, one source of policy questions is the mismatch between human desires and satisfactions
2. Conflict of Goods Policy questions arise because the goods that human beings seek to secure in the world are interdependent and often jointly discordant
3. Policy, Politics, and Utopia Human goods (values?) cannot all be present sufficiently to satisfy human desires. They cannot all be maximized. They exist even when human interests do not. Thus, a need for solution to policy problems in utopian terms
Presuppositions of Policy Questions Policy questions are different from moral, constitutional, and research questions: 1. Constraints of time; ~ the answer will be revised ~ have to be answered on time, though the information needed for the answer is not on time.
Presuppositions of Policy Questions 2. Policy decisions and ethical decisions are different because policies and moral rules or principles differ. ~ Policies are drawn from within a set of alternative actions all of which are either morally indifferent or capable of evoking moral approval. ~ Defining the set of policy choices is the expression of moral conviction and estimations of value, but selecting from within that defined set is not.
The Policy Process 1. Policy analysis 2. Policy formation 3. Policy decision 4. Political analysis of policy 5. Policy research and evaluation
1. Policy Analysis The rational or technical assessment of the net marginal trade-offs between different policy choices. To discover a balance between competing values. An activity whose theory is the theory of marginal utilities – exercise rationality.
2. Policy Formation An activity of gaining agreement on what form a specific policy can or will take, as opposed to what form it ought to take. Involve conversation, persuasion, argument, endless meetings. Employ governmental management and rhetoric theory. Example : at Federal, the theory of inter-agency politics; – “Don’t fight over turf, just take up space”. - “For the interest of the nation”.
3. Policy Decision The authoritative action of some office, administrative, or legislative by which a line of action is established. Employ the theory of polity, the political and legal theory by which authority is distributed, obligations for decision are assigned throughout the structure of political institutions, and agents of authority are enjoined to act.
4. Political Analysis Is concerned with measuring the political weight of a policy. The aim is not so much to determine the net social benefits of a particular policy, but to determine its constituency. Whether the best thing to do is the same as the best thing to be done. It estimates who will vote for it. It employs the theory of political behavior
5. Policy Research & Evaluation R&E can contribute to each of those activities. The rational of policy decision and political analysis are the standards of political judgment. The exercise of political judgment is a practical and evaluation activities Researcher can involve in these activities in the context of government.
Dilemmas Influencing the Context of Polity (Anthony Giddens, The Third Way 1998) 1. Globalization 2. Migration 3. Individualism 4. Political Agency 5. Ecological Problems
1. Globalization Understood as an economic term; More countries are involved in mutual trading Create economic area that spills national boundaries Expanded role of world financial markets Global impact of individual needs
Effects of Globalization Creates new demands for regenerating local identities Regional and transnational groups contribute governance Transforms the institutions of societies in which we live – rise of new individualism
2. Migration Import of new systems of values Enculturation of host values Unskilled work load to skilled labor ratio Education divide
3. Individualism Associated with retreat of tradition and custom New individualism often associated with pressures of democracy Challenge to find new means of production solidarity and social cohesion
4. Political Agency Representation of diverse interests Reconcile the competing claims of these interests Provide diversity of public goods Regulate markets in public interests and foster market competition Foster social peace through control of the means of violence and through the provision of policing Promote active development of human capital through education system Foster regional and transnational alliance to pursue global goals
5. Ecology Pollution Global warming Sustainable development Ecological modernization - science, technology, political will, political censor - partnership between industries and government - international agreements
Lifelong Learning Learning to know: the mastery of learning tools rather than the acquisition of structured knowledge Learning to do: education to equip people to do the types of work needed in the future Learning to live together with others: education to avoid conflict or peacefully resolve it Learning to be: education that contributes to a person’s complete development
Education for the Future i. Skills and knowledge to prepare for the eventuality of job diversification and job flexibility. This ensures resiliency in employability of citizens ii. Engagement and commitment in active citizenry roles vis a vis professional activism, community activism and national agenda activism. This ensures a high level of citizenry participation
Education for the Future iii. A high tolerance for change. As globalization sets in, the rapid flow of information precipitates transformation of life cultures, work cultures, relationships, and identities. iv. Integrity of positive values that are receptive of progress, change, and continuous development. The result of this enlightenment is the people’ sense of being empowered in their quest for a better living
Social Principles in Educational Policy Making Individual rights Unity Expansionism Utilitarianism Diversification Entrepreneurialism
Individual Rights And WHEREAS it is considered desirable that regard shall be had so far as it is compatible with policy (National Educational Policy) with that provision of efficient instruction and avoidance of unreasonable public expenditure, to the general principle that pupils are to be educated in accordance with the wishes of their parents:
Unity Education Act 1996 (Act 550) An act to provide for education and for matters connected therewith. And WHEREAS education plays a vital role in achieving the country’s vision of attaining the status of a fully developed nation in terms of economic development, social justice, and spiritual, moral and ethical strength, towards creating a society that is united, democratic, liberal and dynamic.
And WHEREAS the above (National Educational Policy) is to be executed through a national system of education which provides for the national language to be the main medium of instruction, a National Curriculum and common examinations, the education provided being varied and comprehensive in scope and which will satisfy the needs of the nation as well as promote national unity through cultural, social, economic and political development in accordance with the principles of Rukunegara.
Utilitarian, Entrepreneurialism And WHEREAS it is the mission to develop a world class quality education system which will realize the full potential of the individual and fulfill the aspiration of the Malaysian nation
Utilitarian, Entrepreneurialisim, Diversification WHEREAS the purpose of education is to enable the Malaysian society to have a command of knowledge, skills and values necessary in a world that is highly competitive and globalize, arising from the impact of rapid development in science, technology and information
Polities in Policy Making Environment Populist Democratic populist Democracy Liberal Conservative Socialist Capitalist Federalist
Populist As representative of the people in various sects and creed Preference for local culture and values Focused on local needs Local employment market
Democratic Populist Representative of a larger section of the population sharing similar culture, values, mission or purpose Regional interests Exhibit more tolerance and readiness to accept variations and differences between culture and values within the group
Democracy Dominance of the majority Representatives from all major and sub groups Recognition of individual differences and differing needs Equitable development of potential Dialogical democracy Guided democracy Pluralist-democracy (organized interest groups) Liberal democracy
Liberal Favor individualism Individualist initiative Low state control on all fronts Difficulty in balancing conservative values in private lives and market fundamentalism in employment
Conservative Adherence to a class structure in the system Hegemony of value systems and culture Selective opportunities to elite Privileged authority in decision making Supports market freedom but wants strong state control over issues such as the family, drugs, abortion
Socialist Obligation to the development of the public good rather than the individual The welfare state instead of open market competition Tight bloc of “self contained” entities Faced with challenge to develop new identity in socially and culturally more diverse environment