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Chapter 10 . Fire Hose and Appliances. Introduction. Hose used to move water to fire Fire hose is a flexible conduit Today, many materials are used to make hose Couplings, adapters, and appliances used to connect hose Most departments use National Standard Hose Threads.

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slide1

Chapter 10

Fire Hose and Appliances

introduction
Introduction
  • Hose used to move water to fire
  • Fire hose is a flexible conduit
  • Today, many materials are used to make hose
  • Couplings, adapters, and appliances used to connect hose
  • Most departments use National Standard Hose Threads
construction of fire hose
Construction of Fire Hose
  • Two components: hose and couplings
  • Fire hose can be wrapped, braided, or woven
  • Specific types of hoses:
    • Attack
    • Supply hose
    • Soft suction and hard suction
    • Occupant use
    • Forestry
care and maintenance of fire hose
Care and Maintenanceof Fire Hose
  • Begins with careful folding and placement of the dry hose
  • Always folded at different places
  • Hose bed should be designed to facilitate circulation of air flow
  • Several steps can be taken to reduce damage to hose
types of hose coupling
Types of Hose Coupling
  • Couplings allow hose and appliances to be joined
  • Threaded and nonthreaded couplings
  • Made of brass, aluminum, or an alloy called pyrolite
  • Lugs or handles are used for tightening or breaking connection
care and maintenance of couplings
Care and Maintenance of Couplings
  • Keep clean
  • Store properly
  • Do not drag couplings
  • Perform a visual inspection each time hose is reloaded
hose tools and appliances
Hose Tools and Appliances
  • Tools include:
    • Rope hose tools
    • Wrenches
    • Rollers
    • Clamps
    • Other items: valves, wyes, portable hydrants, strainers, pipes, caps, etc.
coupling and uncoupling hose
Coupling and Uncoupling Hose
  • Connecting hose couplings can be accomplished in several ways:
    • One-person foot-tilt method
    • One-person over-the-hip method
    • Two-person over-the-hip method
    • Uncoupling hose with spanners
    • One-person knee-press uncoupling method
hose rolls
Hose Rolls
  • Type of hose roll dictated by department policy
  • Firefighters should practice all types of hose rolls
straight storage
Straight/Storage
  • Easiest to work with
  • Often used when picking up after a fire
  • Start with hose flat on ground
  • From male end, to protect threads, roll hose straight to opposite end
  • Once roll is finished, it is ready to be moved to storage
single donut
Single Donut
  • For access to either or both couplings
    • Lay hose flat
    • Fold hose on top of itself with male coupling three feet short of female coupling
    • Start at fold and roll toward couplings; a second firefighter can assist
    • Leave small space at center of roll to provide handhold
  • Alternative method by starting off-center about six feet to protect male coupling
job performance requirement 10 6
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-6

Straight or Storage Hose Roll

B Once the roll is finished, it is ready to be moved to storage.

A Start with the hose flat on the ground. From the male end, to protect the threads, roll it straight to the opposite end.

twin or double donut
Twin or Double Donut
  • For special applications
    • Laid flat with both couplings at one end and each half lying parallel
    • At center, loop is folded over top of both halves
    • Roll started toward couplings at same time
    • At end, roll may be tied together for carrying
    • Twin donut can be secured by using the hose itself
job performance requirement 10 9
Twin-Donut Hose RollJob PerformanceRequirement 10-9

B At the center, the loop is folded over the top of both halves.

A First the hose is laid flat with both couplings at one end and each half lying parallel to the other.

job performance requirement 10 9 cont d
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-9 (cont’d.)
  • Twin-Donut Hose Roll

C The roll is started toward the couplings at the same time.

D At the end, the roll may be tied together for carrying.

10.18

job performance requirement 10 9 cont d1
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-9 (cont’d.)
  • Twin-Donut Hose Roll

E The twin donut can be secured by using the hose itself. This is called a self-locking roll. To accomplish this, extend the amount of hose that is used for the starting fold and loop. Allow this excessive hose to “flop” as the twin donuts are rolled. When finished, use the extra hose at the center to form a bight around the two end couplings. (Photo courtesy Loveland Fire and Rescue)

10.19

hose carries
Hose Carries
  • Type of hose carry is dictated by user preference and on-scene conditions
  • Firefighters should practice to be proficient in all types of hose carries
drain and carry
Drain and Carry
  • Combines the two steps of draining and carrying
  • Done with one section of hose
    • Starts at one end of hose; with coupling held waist height, feeds hose over shoulder and back to waist
    • Fold is created and hose is laid on itself back to front
    • Firefighter continues to walk forward folding and refolding hose at waist until finished
    • Hose can be carried to new location
job performance requirement 10 10
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-10

Drain and Carry

A The firefighter starts at one end of the hose and with the coupling held waist height feeds the hose over the shoulder and back down to the waist.

B A fold is created and the hose is laid on itself back to the front.

job performance requirement 10 10 cont d
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-10 (cont’d.)
  • Drain and Carry

C The firefighter continues to walk forward folding and refolding the hose at the waist until finished. The hose can then be carried to the new location.

10.23

shoulder loop carry
Shoulder Loop Carry
  • Carry is similar to rolling an electrical cord around one's arm but with bigger loops
    • Place nozzle or end of hose over shoulder resting against back
    • Walk forward three feet, pick up hose, and form bight to bring hose back up and over shoulder, creating a loop
    • Continue as each section is picked up and carried forward
job performance requirement 10 11
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-11
  • Shoulder Loop Carry

C Continue as each section is picked up and carried forward.

B Walk forward about 3 feet (1 m), pick up the hose, and form a bight to bring the hose back up and over the shoulder, creating a loop.

A Place the nozzle or end of hose over the shoulder resting against the back.

job performance requirement 10 11 cont d
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-11 (cont’d.)
  • Shoulder Loop Carry

E Return the hose to the opposite shoulder moving forward in the new direction.

D If you need to move in the opposite direction, the loops are collected and raised with your hands and then rotated to the opposite direction.

single section street drag
Single-Section Street Drag
  • Can move one or two hoselines
    • Put end of hose over your shoulder with coupling in front at waist height and walk away dragging line
    • Place a line over each shoulder and pull two lines
    • If additional sections are needed, additional firefighters can do the same
job performance requirement 10 12
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-12
  • Single-Section Street Drag

A Put the end of a section of hose over your shoulder with the coupling in front at waist height and walk away dragging the line.

B Place a line over each shoulder and pull two lines.

job performance requirement 10 12 cont d
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-12 (cont’d.)
  • Single-Section Street Drag

C If additional sections are needed, additional firefighters can do the same with the following sections until the desired amount of hose is stretched.

hose loads
Hose Loads
  • Dependent on type of firefighting operations a company will employ
  • A well-trained company should be able to perform any required fire scene tasks
  • Dutchman: short fold of hose or reverse fold that allows coupling placement on load
slide31

Figure 10-14 A dutchman is a short fold of hose or a reverse fold that is used when loading hose and a coupling comes at a point where a fold should take place or when two couplings end up on top of each other. The dutchman moves the coupling to another point in the load.

accordion load
Accordion Load
  • Can be used for preconnected hose lines
  • Used for providing additional supply line
  • Ideal for making up shoulder loads
flat load
Flat Load
  • Used for:
    • Supply lines
    • Some attack lines
  • Involves laying the hose flat
  • Intended use dictates whether female or male end remains exposed when line is loaded
slide34

Figure 10-15 A straight finish load simply involves taking the final length or two of a load and laying it flat across the top of the load. A rope with adapters, a spanner wrench, and a hydrant wrench attached allows the layout person quick access to all the necessary tools and enough hose to make the hydrant connection.

horseshoe load
Horseshoe Load
  • Normally used for supply line
  • Relatively simple to load
  • Usually deploys well
  • Useful for operations that require entire hoseload to be deployed at once
finish loads and preconnected loads
Finish Loads and Preconnected Loads
  • Utilizes the three methods of loading previously discussed
  • Straight finish load used with a straight hose lay
  • Attack line can be attached to end of a hose load
    • Backstretch
    • Flying stretch
  • Preconnected lines can be made up using any number of loads or combinations
slide37

Figure 10-16 A reverse horseshoe load for laying out is made on top of the hose load but in the reverse direction (front to back), and at the center point of the “U” of the horseshoe the rope with adapters and wrenches is attached. The first portion of the hose may need a twist in it to get it to change direction.

slide38

(A)

(B)

Figure 10-17 Preconnected combination loads include horseshoe, accordion, accordion layers or alternating horseshoe and accordion layers. (A) Horseshoe, accordion, accordion layers. (B) Alternating horseshoe and accordion layers.

flat load minuteman load and triple layer load
Flat Load, Minuteman Load,and Triple-Layer Load
  • Preconnected loads must allow rapid removal of hose from slot or bed
  • Flat load, as a preconnect, is based on flat load described earlier
  • Minuteman is a preconnected load using narrower section of the hose bed
  • Loads combined with each other or new loads
  • Hose load should serve needs of the department
stored hose load packs
Stored Hose Load/Packs
  • Apparatuses typically carry stored hose rolls and special application hose packs
  • Hose rolls are extra sections of rolled hose
  • Can be stored as a straight roll, donut roll, or double donut
  • Hose packs are numerous in design and makeup
wildland firefighting hose loads
Wildland Firefighting Hose Loads
  • Often requires firefighters to stretch hoseline a great distance from engine
  • Hose is rolled and bundled together
  • Placing two bundles together allows each firefighter to carry 200 feet
advancing hoselines charged uncharged
Advancing Hoselines – Charged/Uncharged
  • Engine company's purpose is to advance hoselines to seat of fire and to supply water
  • Tasks accomplished in most efficient manner
  • Nozzle person advances first shoulder load with nozzle
  • Officer takes second position
  • Engine person takes third position in a three-person line
job performance requirement 10 18
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-18
  • Advancing a Horseshoe Load

C Step away to pull the hose out of the bed.

A Place the nozzle on the hose and select the desired amount of hose to deploy.

B Pull the hose and place it on your shoulder.

job performance requirement 10 20
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-20
  • Advancing the Flat Load from a Preconnect Bed

A Start the flat load at the discharge with the hose laid. At a point from one-third to one-half the length of the line, an ear or row of ears should be added to assist in pulling the line.

B To advance the line, grab the nozzle and place it over the shoulder with the other hand reaching around and pulling the ear.

job performance requirement 10 20 cont d
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-20 (cont’d.)
  • Advancing the Flat Load from a Preconnect Bed

C Walk away, pulling the line behind.

job performance requirement 10 22
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-22
  • Advancing the Minuteman Load

A Lift up the nozzle and layers above it while pulling them out and placing them midway on the shoulder.

B Step away to remove the remainder of the top layers.

job performance requirement 0 22 cont d
Job PerformanceRequirement 0-22 (cont’d.)
  • Advancing the Minuteman Load

C Turn around and pull the ear to remove the remaining hose.

D When the bottom sections are fully stretched out, allow the shoulder load to flake out toward the fire.

job performance requirement 10 24
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-24
  • Advancing the Triple-Layer Load

A Grab the layer with the nozzle and place it on the shoulder.

B Pull the layers out of the slot, or another firefighter can grab the next layer.

job performance requirement 10 24 cont d
Job PerformanceRequirement 10-24 (cont’d.)
  • Advancing the Triple-Layer Load

C Stretch the hose to the fire.

into structures
Into Structures
  • Advancing a hoseline into a structure requires:
    • Careful placement of pumper and hoseline
    • Proper selection of correct size and length hoseline
    • Skillful execution by hose crew
  • Crew selects hoseline and properly removes it from engine
  • Ensure there is adequate hose available at entry point
  • Check door for heat before entering
up and down stairs
Up and Down Stairs
  • If fire does not involve stairs, advance an uncharged line to fire floor
  • It is necessary to run hoseline up between handrails
  • Rope or strap is wrapped around the railing and secured back on itself
  • If stairwell or landing is involved with fire, crew must advance a charged line
using a standpipe system
Using a Standpipe System
  • Involves two different hoseline evolutions
    • Engine driver connecting to fire department connection on structure
    • Hose crew connecting to standpipe outlet and advancing hoseline to attack fire
  • Pumper first establishes a water supply
  • Hose load and type of coupling determine need for any adapters
  • Pick connection that gets system into service quickest
slide54

Figure 10-32 After connecting the hose at the outlet and the discharge outlet of the pump, the line is charged to the proper pressure. The driver then returns to the outlet and opens the valve.

working hose off ladders
Working Hose Off Ladders
  • Safest manner is to advance uncharged hoseline up ladder and into building or onto fire escape
  • Other method advances a charged hoseline up ladder and into building or operated from ladder
  • Advancing a charged hoseline over a ladder requires multiple firefighters
  • Operating a hoseline from ground ladder requires ladder to be securely tied in and heeled
slide56

Figure 10-36 Firefighters passing a charged hoseline up a ladder from one firefighter to the next until it reaches the opening.

establishing a water supply connection
Establishing a WaterSupply Connection
  • Several different methods exist depending on:
    • Type of heater source
    • Style of hydrant
    • Hose lays used
    • Whether a pumper will be used at the water source
  • Firefighters connect directly to fire hydrant and assist engine driver in making connections
from hydrants
From Hydrants
  • Using unsupported hydrant requires hoseline to be connected without engine at hydrant
  • Layout person picks proper hydrant outlet
  • Flush hydrant before connecting hose
  • Hydrant valve is opened when water is called for
  • Engine connected directly to hydrant or to switch valve already in service to supply attack lines
slide59

Figure 10-38 The layout person pulls the layout section and enough hose to reach and wrap the hydrant.

from static water supplies
From Static Water Supplies
  • Requires use of an engine and its hard sleeves to draft water
  • Must be positioned close enough
  • Connecting hard sleeve to dry hydrant is same procedure as connecting to regular hydrant
  • Vacuum must be created
extending hoselines
Extending Hoselines
  • There will be occasions when line comes up short
    • Often encountered by wildland firefighters
  • All firefighters should be familiar with techniques used to extend hoselines:
    • Break-apart nozzle
    • Hose clamp
    • Wildland hose advancing and extension
replacing sections of burst hose
Replacing Sections of Burst Hose
  • Bursting of a section of hose requires immediate attention
  • Hoseline must be shut down by pump operator
    • If not possible, use other methods
  • Reconnect or add a section; pump operator will recharge line
hose lay procedures
Hose Lay Procedures
  • Bring water to fire location
  • SOPs should cover preferred hose lays and water supply operations
forward lay
Forward Lay
  • Engine stops at water source
    • Drop off supply lines
    • Advances to location of fire

Figure 10-41 The forward or straight hose lay.

reverse lay
Reverse Lay
  • Opposite of forward lay
    • Supply line dropped off at fire location
    • Engine laying hose toward water source
  • Less preferred method
  • Used in areas with few responding units and poor or static water sources
split lay
Split Lay
  • Used when fire and water source are in two different directions
  • Lay split between two engines
  • First engine laying its line from a point or intersection to fire location
  • Second engine laying its line from point to water source
deploying master stream devices
Deploying Master Stream Devices
  • Master streams or heavy appliances:
    • Non-handheld water applicators
    • Capable of flowing 350 gallons of water per minute
  • Four basic types of master stream devices:
    • Wagon pipe
    • Deluge set
    • Monitor pipe
    • Ladder pipe
service testing of fire hose
Service Testing of Fire Hose
  • Tested prior to being placed in use
  • Tested after being repaired
  • Testing begins with visual inspection
  • Test hose under pressure
  • Record results of testing
  • Hard sleeves tested by being connected to a suction source
lessons learned
Lessons Learned
  • Fire hose, adapters, and appliances allow firefighters to move water from source to pumper
  • Without these tools, firefighters would be limited in ability to move water
  • Firefighters must understand the proper use and care of tools
    • How to connect, advance, and operate these tools
  • These are the basics of firefighting
    • Best method for learning is practical application