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ULTRASONIC WELDING. Definition of Ultrasonic Welding. A solid state welding process in which coalescence is produced at the faying surfaces by the application of high frequency vibratory energy while the work pieces are held together under moderately low static pressure.

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definition of ultrasonic welding
Definition of Ultrasonic Welding

A solid state welding process in which coalescence is produced at the faying surfaces by the application of high frequency vibratory energy while the work pieces are held together under moderately low static pressure.

ultrasonic welding process
Ultrasonic Welding Process

Clamping

force

Mass

Process Description:

  • Components of ultrasonic welding system include:
    • Transducer
    • Sonotrode
    • Anvil

wedge

Transducer

Sonotrode

tip

Vibration

Weldment

Anvil

Force

ultrasonic welding mechanism
Ultrasonic Welding Mechanism

Clamping

force

Mass

  • A static clamping force is applied perpendicular to the interface between the work pieces.
  • The contacting sonotrode oscillates parallel to the interface.
  • Combined effect of static and oscillating force produces deformation which promotes welding.

wedge

Transducer

Sonotrode

tip

10-75 KHz

workpiece

Anvil

Force

slide6

Process Variations

  • Spot Welding
  • Ring Welding
  • Line Welding - Linear Sonotrode
  • Continuous Seam Welding - Roller Sonotrode
  • Microminiature Welding
slide7

Typical 1500 ultrasonic

spot-type welding machine

Courtesy AWS handbook

slide9

100 W

Lateral Drive

Ultrasonic

Welder

slide12

Tip

Traversing Head for Continuous Seam Welding

ultrasonic welding variables

Welding Variables

Ultrasonic Welding Variables
  • Ultrasonic power
  • Clamping force
  • Welding time
  • Frequency
  • Linear Vibration Amplitude
ultrasonic welding power generation

Power Generation

Ultrasonic Welding Power Generation
  • Electrical power of 60 Hz is supplied to the frequency converter.
  • The frequency converter converts the required 60 Hz signal to the welding frequency (from 10 to 75 kHz).

Frequency

converter

Electrical

energy

Transducer

Vibratory

transducer

ultrasonic welding power generation17

Power Generation

Ultrasonic Welding Power Generation
  • Frequency is transformed to vibration energy through the transducer.
  • Energy requirement established through the following empirical relationship.
    • E = K (HT)3/2
    • E = electrical energy
    • H = Vickers hardness number
    • T = thickness of the sheet

Frequency

Converter

Electrical

energy

Vibratory

transducer

slide18

Power Requirements

Where:

E = electrical energy, W*s (J)

k = a constant for a given welding system

H = Vickers hardness number of the sheet

T = thickness of the sheet in contact with the sonotrode tip, in. (mm)

The constant “K” is a complex function that appears to involve primarily the electromechanical conversion efficiency of the transducer, the impedance match into the weld, and other characteristics of the welding system. Different types of transducer systems have substantially different K values.

slide23

Sonotrode Tip and Anvil Material

  • High Speed Tool Steels Used to Weld
  • Soft Materials
  • Aluminum
  • Copper
  • Iron
  • Low Carbon Steel
  • Hardenable Nickel-Base Alloys Used to Weld
  • Hard, High Strength Metals and Alloys
ultrasonic welding interfacial interaction
Ultrasonic Welding Interfacial Interaction
  • Localized temperature rises resulting from interfacial slip and plastic deformation.
  • Temperature is also influenced by power, clamping force, and thermal properties of the material.
  • Localized Plastic Deformation
  • Metallurgical phenomena such as recrystallizing, phase transformation, etc..... can occur.
slide26

Extreme Interpenetration

Nickel Foil (top) to Gold-Plated Kovar Foil

Local Plastic Flow

Dark Regions are Trapped Oxide

Nickel Foil (top) to Molybdenum Sheet

Very Little Penetration, Thin Bond Line, Fiber Flow

Molybdenum Sheet to Itself

AWS Welding Handbook

advantages of ultrasonic welding
Advantages of Ultrasonic Welding
  • No heat is applied and no melting occurs.
  • Permits welding of thin to thick sections.
  • Welding can be made through some surface coatings.
  • Pressures used are lower, welding times are shorter, and the thickness of deformed regions are thinner than for cold welding.
limitations of ultrasonic welding
Limitations of Ultrasonic Welding
  • The thickness of the component adjacent to the sonotrode tip must not exceed relatively thin gages because of power limitations of the equipment.
  • Process is limited to lap joints.
  • Butt welds can not be made because there is no means of supporting the workpieces and applying clamping force.
slide30

Other Process Variations

  • Ultrasonic Welding of Non-metallic
  • Ultrasonic Plastic Welding
slide31

Welds Can Be Made to Non-Metallic

Substrate Materials Coated with Thin

Layers of Metal Films

Material Welded

Metal Film

Non-Metallic

ultrasonic welding of plastics
Ultrasonic Welding of Plastics
  • Advantages
    • Fast
    • Can spot or seam weld
  • Limitations
    • Equipment complex, many variables
    • Only use on small parts
    • Cannot weld all plastics

0.1.1.2.5.T25.95.12

applications of ultrasonic welding
Applications of Ultrasonic Welding
  • Assembling of electronic components such as diodes and semiconductors with substrates.
  • Electrical connections to current carrying devices including motors, field coils, and capacitors.
  • Encapsulation and packaging.
  • Plastic parts
slide38

Starter motor armature with wires

joined in commutator slots by

ultrasonic welding

Ultrasonically welded Helicopter

access door.

Courtesy AWS handbook

slide41

Wire Bundle Placed in Jaws

Ultrasonic Tying Tool

Metal Tape Fed Around bundle of Wires and welded once, then cut and welded again.

Ultrasonic

Horn

Bundled Wires

Welds

Cut and Second Weld Made

First Weld Made

slide42

Ultrasonic Stitch (Clad) Welding

Sonatrode

Anvil

Louks, et al “Ultrasonic Bonding Method” US Patenet 6,099,670 Aug. 8, 2000

slide43

Ultrasonic Welding of Eraser Holder on Plastic Pencil

Coinon, A, Trajber, Z, “Pencil Having and Eraser-Holding Ferrule Secured by Ultrasonic Welding” US Patent 5,774,931 July 7, 1998

slide44

Explosive Gas Generator For Auto Air Bag

(Plastic Ultrasonic Weld)

Gas Generating Explosive Powder

Plastic Cap Welded to Plastic Base

Primer

Ultrasonic Weld

Avory, et al “Electrical Initiator” US Patent 5,763,814 June 9, 1998.