Motivation: A Diagnostic Approach *Originally Published in Perspectives on Behavior in Organizations in 1977 Subject Authors: David A. Nadler & Edward E. Lawler III Presenter: Colin Gast Location: MTSU
About the Authors • David A. Nadler • Current Age 62 • Vice Chairman of MMC – Current Compensation ~ 6 million • Used to be Graduate Professor at Columbia University • MBA from Harvard Business School • PhD and MA from University of Michigan • Edward E. Lawler III • PhD from University of California at Berkley • Professor at University of Southern California • Has written in over 43 books
Authors at Time of Article • David A. Nadler • Writing book “Feedback and Organization Development: Using Data-Based Methods” • Founding a consulting company – later acquired by MMC • Graduate from University of Michigan • Edward E. Lawler III • Teaching at University of Michigan since 1972 • Professor of Psychology
Why Motivation As A Topic? • Motivation explains the causes of behavior in organizations • Understanding motivation is key to influencing people • Motivation is useful to predict effects of an action
Existing Approaches to Motivation (1977) • Human Relations • Scientific Management • Job Enrichment • Need Hierarchy • Self-Actualization • ….and more
Assumptions in Existing Approaches • All Employees Are Alike • All Situations Are Alike • One Best Way
Expectancy Theory ( Victor Vroom) • Expectancy Theory proposes that a person will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be. • The core of the theory is the cognitive process of how an individual processes the different motivational elements. • This is done before making the ultimate choice. • The outcome is not the sole determining factor in making the decision of how to behave. Oliver, R. (August, 1974). Expectancy Theory Predictions of Salesmen’s Performance. Journal of Marketing Research 11, 243-253.
Assumptions in Theory • Behavior is determined by a combination of forces in the individual and forces in the environment • People make decisions about their own behavior in organizations • Different people have different types of needs, desires, and goals • People make decisions among alternate plans of behavior based on their perceptions (expectancies) of the degree to which a given behavior will lead to desired outcomes.
Main Concepts • Performance-Outcome Expectancy • Valence • Effort-Performance Expectancy
Problems with model • Individuals do not always make rational decisions • People often stop the decision making process once an acceptable (not optimal) solution is found • Any Others?
Managerial Implications • Figure out what outcomes each employee values • Determine what kinds of behavior you desire • Make sure desired levels of performance are reachable • Link desired outcomes to desired performances • Analyze the total situation for conflicting expectancies • Make sure changes in outcomes are large enough • Check the system for its equity
Organizational Implications • The design of pay and reward systems • The design of tasks, jobs, and roles • The importance of group structures • The supervisor’s role • Measuring motivation • Individualizing organizations