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Melioidosis: Current Diagnostic Approach and Role in Clinical practice. Rob Baird Royal D arwin Hospital. The Darwin Prospective Melioidosis Study. 820 cases over 24 years 109 deaths (13%). Darwin. B. pseudomallei : Selective culture.

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slide1

Melioidosis: Current Diagnostic Approach and Role in Clinical practice

Rob Baird

Royal Darwin Hospital

the darwin prospective melioidosis study
The Darwin Prospective Melioidosis Study

820 cases over 24 years

109 deaths (13%)

Darwin

slide4

B. pseudomallei : Selective culture

Colonies are small, light blue and dry on Ashdown agar.

Typical wrinkled colonies after 72 hours incubation.

slide5

B. pseudomallei : Selective culture

  • Ashdown Broth contains colymycin and crystal violet to suppress Gram positive bacteria and common coliforms
  • Used for screening purposes, and when melioidosis is suspected.
  • Screening is performed mainly on throat and rectal swabs but also on sputum, urine or wound swabs.
  • Broths are incubated 35 degrees C for 5 days – with lids loosened, then subbed to Ashdown agar. Broths are checked daily.
  • Note: the positive is suggested by a growth at the air/broth interface, for this aerobic bacteria
slide6

Different diagnostics:

Acute disease: Blood v swabs v sputum

Chronic disease: exposure

slide7

B. Pseudomallei diagnostic algorithms at Royal Darwin Hospital:

One for blood cultures, one for plate cultures

Blood culture signals

Plate culture growth

Microscopy

Gram stain

Oxidase

Agglutination

Microscopy

Gram stain

Highly motile, bipolar staining

Highly motile, bipolar staining, oxidase positive, agglutinates

PCR

Biochemistry ID

Susceptibility testing

PCR

Biochemistry ID

Susceptibility testing

Doctor notified

Possible, probable, confirmed

slide8

B. pseudomallei: Susceptibility testing

Susceptibility testing of B. pseudomallei isolates is performed to detect resistance to the antimicrobials used in therapy. Resistance in Northern Territory bacterial isolates is rare but described.

Susceptibility methods for testing B. pseudomallei isolates, unlike most common bacteria are more limited, as there are no disc diameter zone sizes available in CLSI and EUCAST methodologies, and automated susceptibility systems such as Vitek 2, produce results which are partially indicative but do not good correlations with formal MIC testing.

The gold standard is agar micro dilution, however E tests are widely available and correlate well with agar microdilution MIC’s. The links below are illustrative:

Etest MIC testing methods and interpretation for B. pseudomallei

Pooled MIC data for > 230 Northern Territory patient B. pseudomallei isolates from 2009-2012:

Ceftazidime

Meropenem

Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole

Doxycycline

slide9

B. pseudomallei : E test interpretation

Trimethoprim/Sulphamethoxazole

E test result 0.125 mg/L

Ceftazidime

E test result 1.5 mg/L

Meropenem

E test result 1.0 mg/L

  • Performed by CLSI method
  • Meropenem, and ceftazidime give clear-cut end-points and are read at complete inhibition, as compared to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole
b pseudomallei e test interpretation
B. pseudomallei : E test interpretation

Trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole

  • Routine antimicrobial testing of melioid isolates by Etest is performed for meropenem, ceftazidime, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and doxycycline.
  • Performed by CLSI method
  • Meropenem, ceftazidime and doxycycline give clear-cut end-points and are read at complete inhibition.
  • Trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole does not have clear cut endpoint
  • The MIC value is taken at 80% inhibition.
  • Picture on left shows the 2 inhibition ellipses.
  • The first one at 0.19 mg/L
  • The second at about 1.5mg/L
  • Therefore at 80% inhibition the MIC is 1.0 mg/L
  • MIC above 2.0mg/L is resistant

1.0mg/L