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Ecodesign of EuP. Dedicated Water Heaters . Boiler - & WH labelling and European directive EuP. Draft proposal NOx –Emission Limit Values. EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-general for Energy and Transport Unit D3, Energy Efficiency. Commission draft proposal.

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boiler wh labelling and european directive eup
ECODESIGN OF EUP, Lot 2, BRUSSELS, 8.7.2008

Ecodesign of EuP

Dedicated Water Heaters

Boiler- & WH labelling and European directive EuP

Draft proposal

NOx –Emission Limit Values

EUROPEAN COMMISSION

Directorate-general for Energy and Transport

Unit D3, Energy Efficiency

commission draft proposal
Commission draft proposal
  • From 01/01/2013 Emissions of NOx from ..Water heaters ..shall be subject to the following limit (where applicable):
  • NOx; 20 ppm, except 40 ppm for products with at least 30% renewable input. This limit shall be after allowing for nitrogen already in the fuel (or when tested with nitrogen free fuel).”
  • Possible Variants (above remains the preferred option, IA study to advise):
  • Raising the non renewables limit by around 25% to 25 ppm.
  • A limit of 70 mg/kW gas, 105mg/kW oil proposed by EHI
  • A delay of implementation limited to small (wall hung) oil boilers

2

why same limits for wh and combi boilers
Why same limits for WH and (combi-)boilers?
  • Principle:
  • instantaneous combi (summer mode)= GIWH (or OIWH)*
  • storage combi (summer mode) = GSWH (or OSWH)
  • Test method envisaged:
  • Identical (steady state test at full load)
  • Urgency: GIWH and GSWH are today low-end market segments and contribute disproportionally to NOx. No technical reason for that and they can/should be upgraded to higher level, comparable to combi or even better.
  • Message: Rethink and upgrade GIWH and GSWH. They might well be (part of) the better alternative to the current combi concept.

GIWH= Gas-fired Instantaneous Water Heater (OIWH is Oil-fired); GSWH= Gas-fired Storage Water Heater (OSWH is Oil-fired)

nox limits misc proposals in mg kwh
>70

kW

>70

kW

<70

kW

<70

kW

2013 ‘18

OFTEC (UK)

boilers: Oil

2013/2018

EG: Gas

2013

EHI boilers

Gas/Oil

2013

EG: Oil

2013

= >30% share renewables

NOx limits: Misc. Proposals (in mg/kWh)

EHI for WH: 200 mg/kWh

Commission proposals in mg/kWh (20 ppm=ca. 35 mg/kWh)

NGO: >50% renewables

why nox limits
Why NOx limits ?
  • Ecodesign not just energy: gas-/oil/ electric boilers & WH contribute 10% to EU-NOx
  • NOx important for smog, acidification (clean air) and plays a role in climate change (ozone)  NEC directive, Stockholm Treaty, AAQ directive, etc.
  • EU behindin legislation (California in front). If EU wants to compete globally, the legislation should reflect that.
  • The proposed limits are ambitious (current best) but should be feasible throughout within 4-5 years with extra R&D (2013)
  • CO safety limits are already in standards (but test standards should be updated asap!). No need to go further until new standards are there.
  • NOx policy limits (in ppm) are 25 times more stringent than CO in EU Directives.(25 times “more important”)
no2 in eu 2003
NO2 in EU 2003

http://www.knmi.nl/~eskes/folkert/meteorologica_05.html

nox fighting smog and acidification
NOx: Fighting smog and acidification

1296

+

Business as Usual

1056

936

14 kt SOx eq/a

in 2020

961

922

Realistic

665

555

514

631

223

102

2025

2020

2010

1990

193 kt SOx eq/a in 2025

Impact EU: Acidification (in kt SOx eq./a)

[ EU-15 total in 2005: 10.945 kt SOx equivalent, from 9015 kt Nox (*0,7) and 4635 kt SO2] ]

ECODESIGN OF EUP, Lot 1 & 2, BRUSSELS, 29.2.2008

9

why nox bonus why nitrogen free
Why “NOx-bonus”? Why Nitrogen-free?
  • NOx-bonus (+20 ppm) is consistent with system approach: Rating of the NOx of the whole boiler installation (including renewables).
  • If the fossil-fuel fired boiler is just a back-up and may not even (or little) be used in normal operation, it is not advantageous for the environment nor economical for the user to require the most stringent limits.
  • Nitrogen-free: The nitrogen in the fuel cause a substantial and often unavoidable part of the NOx emissions (ca. 28-35 mg/kWh). This is outside the scope of the boiler-design and manufacturers of boilers that use nitrogen-containing fuel are not responsible for that part of the NOx emissions. (e.g. compare “low-S”)
nox formation 3 types
NOx formation: 3 types

Thermal NO

post-flame, high temperature

Prompt NO

fuel-rich flame, low temperature

Fuel NO

Oxidation of N in fuel

Fuel NO not responsibility of boiler industry

world nox limits gas fired boilers
World NOx limits gas-fired boilers

=also dedicated water heaters

world nox limits oil fired boilers
World NOx limits oil-fired boilers

=also dedicated water heaters

compare cars nox in mg kwh
Compare cars NOx (in mg/kWh)

EuP draft  2013

Euro 6  2014

133

70-

105

100

35-

70

mg NOx/kWh

mg NOx/kWh

diesel

gasoline

diesel gas

with or without renewables

Explosion motor

Dynamic test

Combustion

Steady-state test

power plants nox
Power plants NOx
  • LCP-directive* NOx-limits for new plants after 2003:
  • Most gas turbines < 43 mg/kWh (ca. 25 ppm)
  • Gas > 300 MW < 85 mg/kWh**; 50-300 MW
  • Oil > 100 MW < 170 mg/kWh; 50-100 MW < 340 mg/kWh
  • 2004 example: GE “Frame 9FB” gas-fired steam turbine (combined cycle) 412 MW, 58 % efficiency on NCV (lower heating value). Dry Low NOx2+ combustion system  NOx emissions less than 43 mg/kWh. (=25 ppm, installation Milan(IT) 2004.)

*= Large Combustion Plants directive 2001/80/EC

**=conversion 100 mg/m3 = 85 mg/kWh

slide17
Remember..

EU should be ahead!

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