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MONDAY BELLRINGER. GET OUT YOUR COMPOSITION NOTEBOOK TURN TO YOUR FIRST BLANK PAGE TITLE IT PHOTOSYNTHESIS . Make sure you are in the proper seat in order to be counted present!!. History of Photosynthesis & Plant Pigments. Investigating Photosynthesis.

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monday bellringer



Make sure you are in the proper seat in order to be counted present!!

investigating photosynthesis
Investigating Photosynthesis
  • Many Scientists Have Contributed To Understanding Photosynthesis
  • Early Research Focused On The Overall Process
  • Later Researchers Investigated The Detailed Chemical Pathways
van helmont s experiment 1643
Van Helmont’s Experiment 1643
  • Planted a seed into A pre-measured amount of soil and watered for 5 years
  • Weighed Plant & Soil. Plant Was 75 kg, Soil The Same.
  • Concluded Mass Came From Water
priestley s experiment 1771
Priestley’s Experiment 1771
  • Burned Candle In Bell Jar Until It Went Out.
  • Placed Sprig Of Mint In Bell Jar For A Few Days.
  • Candle Could Be Relit And Burn.
  • Concluded Plants Released Substance (O2) Necessary For burning.
ingenhousz s experiment 1779
Ingenhousz’s Experiment 1779

Repeated Priestly experiment with & without sunlight

results of ingenhousz s experiment
Results of Ingenhousz’s Experiment
  • Showed That Priestley’s Results Only Occurred In The Presence Of Sunlight.
  • Light Was Necessary For Plants To Produce The “Burning Gas” or oxygen
julius robert mayer 1845
Julius Robert Mayer 1845

Proposed That Plants can Convert Light Energy Into Chemical Energy

samuel ruben martin kamen 1941
Samuel Ruben & Martin Kamen1941

Used Isotopes To Determine That The Oxygen Liberated In Photosynthesis Comes From Water



melvin calvin 1948
Melvin Calvin 1948
  • First to trace the path that carbon (CO2) takes in forming Glucose
  • Does NOT require sunlight
  • Called the Calvin Cycle or Light Independent Reaction
  • Also knownas the Dark Reaction
rudolph marcus 1992
Rudolph Marcus 1992
  • Studied the Light Independent Reactions
  • First to describe the Electron transport Chain
  • In addition to water, carbon dioxide, and light energy, photosynthesis requires Pigments
  • Chlorophyll is the primary light-absorbing pigment in autotrophs
  • Chlorophyll is found inside chloroplasts
light and pigments
Light and Pigments
  • Energy From The Sun Enters Earth’s Biosphere As Photons
  • Photon = Light Energy Unit
  • Light Contains A Mixture Of Wavelengths
  • Different Wavelengths Have Different Colors
light pigments
Light & Pigments
  • Different pigments absorb different wavelengths of light
  • Photons of light “excite” electrons in the plant’s pigments
  • Excited electrons carry the absorbed energy
  • Excited electrons move to HIGHER energy levels

There are 2 main types of chlorophyll molecules:

Chlorophyll a

Chlorophyll b

A third type, chlorophyll c, is found in dinoflagellates

Magnesium atom at the center of chlorophyll

chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll a
  • Found in all plants, algae, & cyanobacteria
  • Makes photosynthesis possible
  • Participates directly in the Light Reactions
  • Can accept energy from chlorophyll b
chlorophyll b
Chlorophyll b
  • Chlorophyll b is an accessory pigment
  • Chlorophyll b acts indirectly in photosynthesis by transferring the light it absorbs to chlorophyll a
  • Like chlorophyll a, it absorbs red & blue light and REFLECTS GREEN
what is photosynthesis
What is Photosynthesis ?
  • Involves the use of light Energy to convert Water (H20) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Oxygen (O2) and High Energy Carbohydrates (sugars, e.g. Glucose) & Starches
photosynthesis overview
Photosynthesis Overview
    • Plants and some other types of organisms that contain chlorophyll are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.

Make their own food using the sunlight

photosynthesis overview1
Photosynthesis Overview
    • Are organisms that can NOT make their own food
    • They can NOT directly use the sun’s energy
photosynthesis overview2
Photosynthesis Overview
  • Energy
    • Energy takes many forms such as light, heat, electrical, chemical and mechanical
    • Energy can be stored in chemical bonds and then released later on
photosynthesis overview3
Photosynthesis Overview

Cells Use BIOCHEMICAL energy

Cells use ATP for:

  • Active transport
  • Movement
  • Photosynthesis
  • Protein Synthesis
  • Cellular respiration
  • All other cellular reactions
photosynthesis overview4
Photosynthesis Overview
  • ATP – Cellular Energy
    • Adenosine Triphosphate
    • Contains two, high-energy phosphate bonds
    • Also contains the nitrogen base adenineand a ribose sugar
photosynthesis overview5
Photosynthesis Overview
  • ADP – Adenosine Diphosphate
    • ATP releases energy, a free phosphate, & ADP when cells take energy from ATP
importance of atp
Importance of ATP

Principal Compound Used To Store Energy In Living Organisms

importance of atp1
Importance of Atp
  • ATP is constantly being used and remade by cells
  • ATP provides all of the energy for cell activities
  • The high energy phosphate bonds can be BROKEN to release energy
  • The process of releasing ATP’s energy & reforming the molecule is called phosphorylation
releasing energy from atp
Releasing Energy from Atp


  • Adding A Phosphate Group To ADP stores Energy in ATP
  • Removing A Phosphate Group From ATP Releases Energy & forms ADP


one more thing on atp
One more thing on ATP
  • Cells Have Enough ATP To Last For A Few Seconds
  • ATP must constantly be made
  • ATP Transfers Energy Very Well
  • ATP Is NOT Good At Energy Storage
structure of the chloroplast
Structure of the Chloroplast
  • Double membrane organelle
  • Outer membrane smooth
  • Inner membrane forms stacks of connected sacs called thylakoids
  • Thylakoid stack is called the granum (grana-plural)
  • Gel-like material around grana called stroma
function of the stroma
Function of the Stroma
  • Light Independent reactions occur here
  • ATP used to make carbohydrates like glucose
  • Location of the Calvin Cycle
thylakoid membranes
Thylakoid membranes
  • Light Dependent reactions occur here
  • Photosystems are made up of clusters of chlorophyll molecules
  • Photosystems are embedded in the thylakoid membranes
  • The two photosystems are:
    • Photosystem I
    • Photosystem II
energy carriers
Energy Carriers
  • Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADP+)
  • NADP+ = Reduced Form
  • Picks Up 2 high-energy electrons and H+ from the Light Reaction to form NADPH
  • NADPH carries energy to be passed on to another molecule
light dependent reactions
Light Dependent Reactions
  • Occurs across the thylakoid membranes
  • Uses light energy
  • Produce Oxygen from water
  • Convert ADP to ATP
  • Also convert NADP+ into the energy carrier NADPH
photosystem i
Photosystem I
  • Discovered First
  • Active in the final stage of the Light Dependent Reaction
  • Made of 300 molecules of Chlorophyll
  • Almost completely chlorophyll a
photosystem i1
Photosystem I

High-energy electrons are moved to Photosystem I through the Electron Transport Chain

Energy is used to transport H+ from stroma to inner thylakoid membrane

NADP+ converted to NADPH when it picks up 2 electrons & H+

photosystem ii
Photosystem II
  • Discovered Second
  • Active in the beginning stage Of the Light Dependent Reaction
  • Contains about equal amounts of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
photosynthesis begins
Photosystem II absorbs light energy

Electrons are energized and passed to the Electron Transport Chain

Lost electrons are replaced from the splitting of water into 2H+, free electrons, and Oxygen

2 H+ pumped across thylakoid membrane

Photosynthesis Begins

Enzyme in thylakoid membrane called ATP Synthase

As H+ ions passed through thylakoid membrane, enzyme binds them to ADP

Forms ATP for cellular

light reaction summary
Light Reaction Summary


  • H2O
  • Light Energy

Energy Products:

  • ATP
light independent reaction
Light Independent Reaction
  • ATP & NADPH from light reactions used as energy
  • Atmospheric C02 is used to make sugars like glucose and fructose
  • Six-carbon Sugars made during the Calvin Cycle
  • Occurs in the stroma
the calvin cycle
The Calvin Cycle
  • Two turns of the Calvin Cycle are required to make one molecule of glucose
  • 3-CO2 molecules enter the cycle to form several intermediate compounds (PGA)
  • A 3-carbon molecule called RibuloseBiphosphate (RuBP) is used to regenerate the Calvin cycle
factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis
  • Amount of available water
  • Temperature
  • Amount of available light energy