What are mood disorders? • A class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual and thought processes • In extreme cases, a mood may cause individuals may lose touch with reality or seriously threaten their health or lives
Types of Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder • Severe form of lowered mood in which a person experiences feelings of worthlessness and diminished pleasure or interest in many activities • Individuals can spend at least 2 weeks feeling depressed, sad, anxious, fatigued, and agitated • The depression ranges from mild feelings of uneasiness, sadness and apathy to intense suicidal despair • Marked by at least 4 of the following symptoms: problems with eating, sleeping, thinking, concentrating, or decision making; thinking about suicide, and feeling guilty or worthless
Types of Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder • People are given this diagnosis if they have had 2 or more episodes of major depression • Research suggests 7% of the population endure a depressive disorder at some time • Twice as high in women than in men
Types of Mood Disorders Bipolar Disorder • Formally known as manic-depressive disorder • Marked by experience of both depressed and manic periods (euphoria) • In the manic phase, a person experiences elation, extreme confusion, distractibility, and racing thoughts • Often this state is not easy to detect because the person seems in touch with reality and optimistic • Some people in manic periods gamble excessively, spend money frantically, or become sexually reckless
Types of Mood disorders Bipolar Disorder • Affects 1% of the population • Seen equally in males and females • Age of onset is highest between the ages of 20 and 29
Types of Mood Disorders Seasonal Affective Disorder • People who develop a deep depression in the midst of winter • Sprits lift only with the coming of spring • Suffer annual depressions • Hormone melatonin may play a role
Causes of Mood Disorders • Genetic Vulnerability • Neurochemical factors • Norepinephrine • Serotonin • Cognitive Factors
Question • Recall the last time you failed or did not do well at something. What kind of explanation did you offer your failure? Was this explanation pessimistic or optimistic? How did your explanation affect your mood or feelings?