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  1. Mood Disorders AP PSYCH CH 12

  2. Mood Disorders • Emotional disturbances in emotion or mood. • OR moods are consistently inappropriate to the situation • Also called affective (synonym: emotion) disorders

  3. Major Depression A little depression once in a while is normal Major depressive disorder - remaining depressed for a long time Symptoms: sad, hopeless, lose interest in activities, changes in appetite/ body weight, changes in sleeping patterns, restlessness/or sluggish, fatigued, hard to think/concentrate, thoughts of death, suicide

  4. Incidence of Depression • Martin Seligman – depression is the “common cold” of psychological problems. Nearly everyone is depressed (at least mildly) at some point. • Dysthymia – minor form of depression that persists for over 2 years • Depression = most mental health admissions • Still underdiagnosed and undertreated • 1 in 50 commit suicide (Bostwick & Pankratz, 2000) • Depression is prevalent is all societies, though rates vary.

  5. Biological Causes of Depression • Genetics - • Runs in families (multiple studies) • Linked to lack of neurotransmitteds norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine • Linked to low brain wave activity of the left frontal cortex • Can also be caused by viral infection

  6. Cognitive, Social, Behavioral Causes • Environmental factors • Losing a job, death in the family, etc. • Cognitive Factors • Already low self-esteem makes some events hard to cope with • Martin Seligman – learned helplessness • Personal flaws  depressed mood  negative behaviors • Social factors • Cause withdrawal from society

  7. SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) A form of depression caused by deprivation of sunlight linked to hormone melatonin (regulates biological clocks) Use artificial light therapy to treat

  8. Who becomes depressed? • Rates higher in women than men (many studies) • Reasons lie in differing response styles • Ruminative - concentrate on problems • More women have this response • Men more likely to distract themselves from problems • Depression 10-20 times more common now than it was 50 years ago. • Mid 1900s – middle aged women, most depressed • Now, higher in teens than ever before

  9. Bipolar Disorder Mood disorder characterized by swings of moods from mania to depression Manic stage – symptoms: extreme elation, excitement, hyperactive, talkative (fast, unintelligible), uncharacteristic spending sprees, sexual promiscuity, other high risk activities Highly heritable – only 1% of population has it, identical twins 70% chance if one twin has it, other will too.