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Chapter 33. MH. Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence . Gamal Abdul Nasser. 1918-1970 Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956.

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Chapter 33

Chapter 33


Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence

Gamal abdul nasser
Gamal Abdul Nasser

  • 1918-1970

  • Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956.

Aswan dam
Aswan Dam

  • An embankment dam (artificial water barrier) situated across the Nile River in Egypt; built between 1960-1970 following the Egyptian Revolution in the 1950’s. Majorly effected the economy and culture of Egypt.

Anwar sadat
Anwar Sadat

  • Successor to Gamal Abdul Nasser as ruler of Egypt; acted to dismantle costly state programs; accepted peace treaty with Israel in 1973; opened Egypt to investment by Western nations.

Ayatollah khomeini
Ayatollah Khomeini

  • 1900-1989

  • Religious ruler of Iran following the revolution of 1979 to expel the Pahlavi shah of Iran; emphasized religious purification; tried to eliminate Western influences and establish purely Islamic government.

African national congress
African National Congress

  • Black political organization within South Africa; pressed for end to policies of apartheid; sought open democracy leading to black majority; until the 1990s declared illegal in South Africa.

Nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela

  • Born 1918

  • Long-imprisoned leader of the African National Congress Party; worked with the ANC leadership and F. W. de Klerk’s supporters to dismantle the apartheid system from the mid-1980s onward; in 1994, became the first black prime minister of South Africa after the ANC won the first genuinely democratic elections in the country’s history.

Indira gandhi
Indira Gandhi

  • Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi); installed as a figurehead prime minister by the Congress party bosses in 1966; a strong-willed and astute politician, she soon became the central figure in India politics, a position she maintained through the 1970s and passed on to her sons.

Corazon aquino
Corazon Aquino

  • Born 1933

  • First president of the Phillippines in the post-Marcos era of the late 1980s; she served from 1986-1992; Aquino whose husband was assassinated by thugs in the pay of the Marcos regime, was one of the key leaders in the popular movement that toppled the dictator.

Benazir bhutto
Benazir Bhutto

  • Twice prime minister of Pakistan in the 1980s and 1990s; first ran for office to avenge her father’s execution by the military clique then in power.

Muslim brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood

  • Egyptian nationalist movement founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928; committed to fundamentalist movement in Islam; fostered strikes and urban riots against the khedival government.

South african homelands
South African homelands

  • Territory set aside for black South Africans, also known as Bantustan

Chapter 33
Evaluate why the new African and Asian states had such difficulty in establishing national identities

  • Population boom

  • Parasitic cities (unemployment in urban centers)

  • Neocolonialism

  • Cold War rivalries

  • Stunted economic development

Appraise the reasons for the high population growth rates in new asian and african birthrates
Appraise the reasons for the high population growth rates in new Asian and African birthrates.

  • Food and crops from the New World

  • New railroads and steamships spread food.

  • Improved hygiene and medical system

  • Improved sewage systems and drinking water

  • Religion

  • Parents past dependency on children

  • Birth control = West’s way to meddle in affairs

Compare the cities in asia africa and latin america with those of the west
Compare the cities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America with those of the West

  • West has economic prosperity

    • Less parasitic cities

  • Asia, Africa , and Latin America have slum settlements

  • Also over population with a lot of unemployment

    • More beggars and people in to petty crime

Define neo colonialism
Define “neo-colonialism” those of the West

  • Neo- colonialism is the geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to control a country, in lieu of either direct military control or indirect political control.

Compare nasser s military government with other military regimes
Compare Nasser’s military government with other military regimes

  • Most radical approach to economic and social reforms

  • Disbanded all political parties

  • Intervened in all aspects of Egyptian life

    • Limited land, paid for college education, gov was the biggest employer, restrictions on foreign investments

  • Imprisoned thousands and violated human rights

Compare post independence policies in india and egypt
Compare post-independence policies in India and Egypt regimes

  • Egypt turned into a dictatorship and also had the Free Officers Movement and the Muslim Brotherhood

  • India was a democracy and invested heavily in the Green Revolution

Summarize the influences that contributed to islamic fundamentalists gaining power in iran
Summarize the influences that contributed to Islamic fundamentalists gaining power in Iran

  • Iran was in a state of turmoil due to the Islamic Revolution in 1979, which allowed Islamic Fundamentalists to have more of a sway

Chapter 33

Evaluate whether the problems in newly independent Asian and African nations were the creation of imperialism or the result of indigenous factors.

  • Both were factors in creating problems in Africa and Asia

  • The indigenous people were unable to control their population and couldn’t follow through on promises

  • Large migration to urban areas lead to parasitic cities and endangered ecosystems

  • Neocolonial economies hurt developing nations

Chapter 33

Compare the political, social, and economic development of Asian and African countries after independence with the countries of Latin America

  • Political- both had political power struggles between communism and democracy

  • Social- women’s status still low, not much government participation

  • Economic- economic strife, lack of industrialization and dependency on neocolonial economy