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SA 145 Workplace Safety Today and Tomorrow Unit 3 Identifying Hazards
Introduction Recognition of Hazards • Systems Approach to recognizing hazards • Systems Safety Engineering • Defined: a logical systematic approach utilizing scientific and engineering principles to identify hazards via a cause and effect pattern of events and actions, which ultimately cause a loss incident.
Inspections Purpose for Inspections Two primary purposes: • Identify hazards and ensure correction (Supervisor) • Audit the effectiveness of the safety program and hold supervisors accountable (Safety Manager)
Inspections Format for Inspections • policy and procedure for completing inspections • inspection form • training for supervisors
Accident Investigations (AI) Why investigate accidents? Develop a written procedure for AI • Purpose and scope of AI • Accident notification • Employee training in AI • Forms to be completed and time frames • Review and follow-up of AI
Accident Investigations Procedures for gathering evidence and facts surrounding the accident • Injured and witness interviews • Take pictures, sketches, etc. • Examine accident records • Test circumstantial evidence • Site security and the media
Accident Investigations Accident Report Information • Employee Data (Who) • Accident Description (What Happened, When and Where) • Costs associated with an accident:Medical/indemnity (direct or insurable costs) and Indirect or uninsured costs • Identification of Causes: Unsafe acts and conditions “symptoms” and problems in the management system “underlying causes”
Accident Investigations Accident Report Information Determine Corrective Action Major objective is to remove causes! • Emphasis on engineering controls • Consider administrative controls • Review and follow-up of corrective action
Accident Investigations Accident Description • While walking through the machining department, you observe the overhead crane moving across the bay. Suddenly, the crane strikes another crane and the load swings out of the rigging and strikes an idle piece of machinery below, nearly missing an employee standing below. • Accident Causes - Recommendations?
Pre-operations Planning • Emphasis on identifying hazards and bottle necks prior to construction • Goal is to ensure that safety is incorporated into equipment, facility, and new process design
Pre-operations Planning Review Building Codes • Codes are ordinances that set forth minimum requirements for building construction and design • Examples of building codes
Pre-operations Planning Layout Considerations • Material flow Questions to consider: • Roadways Reference U.S. DOT: “Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways”
Pre-operations Planning Layout Considerations • Aisles • Aisles for one-way forklift traffic be at least 3 ft. wider than the widest forklift. • For two way traffic, at least 3 ft. wider than twice the width of the widest vehicle
Pre-operations Planning Layout Considerations • Equipment • Materials • Power transmission exposures • Maintenance • Environmental concerns • Fire concerns • Pressurized equipment
Pre-operations Planning Equipment (continued) • Drainage for wet processes • Life safety concerns • Electrical requirements • Ergonomic considerations
Pre-operations Planning • Life Safety and Fire Prevention • Workplace fires and explosions kill 200 and injure more than 5,000 workers each year. • In 1995, more than 75,000 workplace fires cost businesses more than $2.3 billion.
Pre-operations Planning • Life Safety and Fire Prevention NFPA #101 “Life Safety Code” Each work location should have a sufficient number of unobstructed,easily visible, properly designed paths of travel with a capacity adequate to safely evacuate the maximum number of persons expected to be in the area.
Pre-operations Planning • Life Safety and Fire Prevention Egress capacity • Occupancy • Egress surface
Pre-operations Planning • Life Safety and Fire Prevention Fire Prevention: • Control of combustibles: • flammable liquids, ordinary combustibles • Control of ignition hazards: • electrical hazards • Extinguishment and detection: • Fire extinguishers and sprinkler systems • Fire brigades
Fire Definitions • "Class A fire" means a fire involving ordinary combustible materials such as paper, wood, cloth, and some rubber and plastic materials
Fire Definitions • "Class B fire" means a fire involving flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, greases and similar materials, and some rubber and plastic materials
Fire Definitions • "Class C fire" means a fire involving energized electrical equipment where safety to the employee requires the use of electrically nonconductive extinguishing media
Fire Definitions • "Class D fire" means a fire involving combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, lithium and potassium "Dry powder" means an compound used to extinguish or control Class D fires
Portable Fire Extinguishers • Key Issues: • Placement • Use • Maintenance • Testing
Pre-operations Planning: Illumination Basic types of lighting • General lighting • Localized general lighting • Supplementary lighting • Emergency lighting
Pre-operations Planning: Illumination Quantity of illumination Quantity depends primarily on the work being done Reference on quantity: ANSI RP-7 Practice for Industrial Lighting
Pre-operations Planning: HVAC Importance of HVAC Temperature comfort zone General recommendation for temperature is between 66° and 79° F
Pre-operations Planning: HVAC Indoor air quality Importance Cause of poor indoor air quality
Pre-operations Planning: HVAC • Complaints due to poor indoor air quality • Evaluation of indoor air quality
Pre-operations Planning: Sanitation • Areas which must remain sanitary • General sanitation rules • Drinking water • Water Quality Standards: Primary and Secondary Standards
Pre-operations Planning: Sanitation Sewage and Garbage Disposal Types of Sewage - Sanitary sewage - Process Waste
Pre-operations Planning: Sanitation Rest rooms/Locker rooms • Lavatories with hot and cold water • One shower per 50 employees with max. water temp. inside shower of 140 degrees • # of toilets based on # of employees, Reference for washrooms and locker rooms ANSI Z4.1
Pre-operations Planning: Color coding to Identify Hazards Not intended to be a substitute for other control measures Red Yellow Orange Green Black and White
Safety Hazards in Industry OSHA Most Frequently Cited Serious Safety Violations in General Industry – FY 2005 Scaffolding 8891 citations Hazard Communication 7267 ’’ Fall Protection 6122 ’’ Respiratory Protection 4278 ’’
Safety Hazards in Industry OSHA Most Frequently Cited Serious Safety Violations in General Industry – FY 2005 Lockout/Tagout 4051 citations Powered Industrial Trucks 3115 ’’ Electrical Wiring 3077 ’’ Machine Guarding 2956 ’’ Electrical – General Requirements 2348 Ladders 2276
Scaffolding • Failure to provide fall protection • Failure to provide proper access • Failure to ensure adequate platform construction • Lack of personal fall arrest or guardrail systems • Failure to properly support scaffolding
Hazard Communication • Failure to develop and maintain a written program • Failure to maintain training • Failure to have a MSDS for each hazardous chemical • Lack of employee training • Failure to label
Fall Protection • Failure to use a guardrail, safety not or personal fall arrest system • Failure to provide protection/residential construction • Failure to provide protection/low-slope roof • Failure to provide protection/steep roof • Failure to provide protection/falling through holes
Respiratory Protection • Failure to establish a program • Failure to provide medical evaluation • Failure to provide respirators • Failure to conduct fit-testing • Failure to identify respiratory hazards
Lockout/Tagout • Failure to establish written program • Failure to utilize procedures • Failure to provide training • Failure to conduct inspection of procedures