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Human Growth and Development/Life Stages

Human Growth and Development/Life Stages

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Human Growth and Development/Life Stages

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  1. Human Growthand Development/Life Stages

  2. Life Stages • Growth spans an individual’s lifetime • Development is the process of becoming fully grown • Health care workers need to be aware of the various stages and needs of the individual to provide quality health care (continues)

  3. Life Stages (continued) • Infancy: birth to 1 year • Early childhood: 1–6 years • Late childhood: 6–12 years • Adolescence: 12–20 years • Early adulthood: 20–40 years • Middle adulthood: 40–65 years • Late adulthood: 65 years and older

  4. Growth and Development Types • Physical: body growth • Mental: mind development • Emotional: feelings • Social: interactions and relationships with others • Four types above occur in each stage

  5. Erikson’s Stages ofPsychosocial Development • Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst • A basic conflict or need must be met in each stage

  6. Infancy • Age: birth to 1 year old • Dramatic and rapid changes • Physical development • Mental development • Emotional development • Social development • Infants are dependent on others for all of their needs

  7. Early Childhood • Age: 1–6 years old • Physical development • Mental development • Emotional development • Social development • The needs of early childhood include routine, order, and consistency

  8. Late Childhood or Preadolescence • Age: 6–12 years old • Physical development • Mental development • Emotional development • Social development • Children in this age group need parental approval, reassurance, peer acceptance

  9. Adolescence • Age: 12–20 years old • Physical development • Mental development • Emotional development • Social development • Adolescents need reassurance, support, and understanding

  10. Eating Disorders • Often develop from an excessive concern for appearance • Anorexia nervosa • Bulimia • More common in females • Usually, psychological or psychiatric intervention is needed to treat either of these conditions

  11. Chemical Abuse • Use of alcohol or drugs with the development of a physical and/or mental dependence on the chemical • Can occur at any life stage, but frequently begins in adolescence • Can lead to physical and mental disorders and diseases • Treatment towards total rehabilitation

  12. Reasons Chemicals Used • Trying to relieve stress or anxiety • Peer pressure • Escape from either emotional or psychological problems • Experimentation • Seeking “instant gratification” • Hereditary traits or cultural influences

  13. Suicide • One of the leading causes of death in adolescents • Permanent solution to temporary problem • Impulsive nature of adolescents • Most give warning signs • Call for attention • Prevention of suicide

  14. Reasons for Suicide • Depression • Grief over a loss or love affair • Failure in school • Inability to meet expectations • Influence of suicidal friends or parents • Lack of self-esteem

  15. Increased Risk of Suicide • Family history of suicide • A major loss or disappointment • Previous suicide attempts • Recent suicide of friends, family, or role models (heroes or idols)

  16. Early Adulthood • Age: 20–40 years old • Physical development • Mental development • Emotional development • Social development

  17. Middle Adulthood (Middle Age) • Age: 40–65 years of age • Physical development • Mental development • Emotional development • Social development

  18. Late Adulthood • Age: 65 years of age and older • Physical development • Mental development • Emotional development • Social development • The elderly need a sense of belonging, self-esteem, financial security, social acceptance, and love

  19. Late Adulthood • Age: 65 years of age and older • Physical development • Mental development • Emotional development • Social development • The elderly need a sense of belonging, self-esteem, financial security, social acceptance, and love