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Activity 3 - Key Messages

Activity 3 - Key Messages

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Activity 3 - Key Messages

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  1. Activity 3 - Key Messages • We all have different attributes / qualities. • Some we like –and others we do not. • We can learn to like our short comings or change them - we have a choice. • By knowing our positive qualities we are more sure of ourselves and more able to accomplish things. • Self-esteem is how a person feels about himself or herself. Knowing oneself and feeling good about oneself is an important aspect of the process of growing up.

  2. Activity 2 - Key messages • The various life skills work best in conjunction. • Many life skills are required to manage a particular situation effectively. • One particular skill may be effectively utilized in diverse situations. • The appropriate combination of life skills at a given moment is an art. • Adolescents learn their life skills from parents/teachers/significant others who act as a role models. • Stories from PANCHATANTRA and JATAKA TALES are based largely on effective utilization of life skills, e.g., “The Thirsty Crow”, “The Clever Rabbit”, etc.

  3. Cont… • Low self-esteem especially among young girls, often results in a variety of problems and difficulties. Therefore, it is important that adolescents should be helped in improving their self-esteem. • By liking ourselves we feel good around other people and better at anything we are doing. • Focusing on “positive self-esteem,” is essential, it affects how we view others, and ourselves and the way we approach almost every aspect of our life. People with low self-esteem often engage in self-destructive behaviour.

  4. Activity 5 Understanding Health & Growing Up Process

  5. Adolescence • “Adolescence” as a period between childhood and adulthood. • Boys and girls between 10–19 years are called “Adolescents”. • Persons in the age group 15 – 24 are called “youth”. • Persons in the age group 10 – 24 are called “young people”. • Puberty is the name given to changes that happens to girls and boys as they grow up.

  6. Health • Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity. (WHO) • Physical well being refers to the normal functions of body and body organs within the limitation of gender, age and occupation. • Mental well being refers not only to the absence of mental illness but also to the awareness of one’s talents, abilities, emotions, strengths and weaknesses. • Social well being refers to one’s ability to interact with and adjust to other members of the society. It also means being responsible towards oneself, one’s family, community and country.

  7. Activity 5 - Key Messages • The quest for information starts as early as class 3 or age 8. Questions across generations are similar. • Therefore it is not as if children are not sourcing the information, however they may be sourcing it from inadequate and inaccurate sources. • In the current times, inadequacy and inaccuracy of information would make young people more vulnerable to high risk behaviours such as HIV/AIDS and substance abuse.

  8. Activity 6 Case A: • Ritu is a girl studying in school and has always been feeling low as she has dark complexion. This has been her situation since childhood. Therefore her mother made her use curd, milk, turmeric, but nothing seems to have had any effect. Her friends and her sister are fairer than her and she feels uneasy going out with them. Is it her fault that she is dark?

  9. Activity 6 Case B: • Rahul is a boy of 16 years and a student of standard X. His problem is that he has never had a girlfriend – all his friends call him “A bookworm”. When he is in the midst of people he feels they are looking at him as a bookworm. This embarrasses him a lot and he losses self-confidence and can’t concentrate fully on his studies. He feels that he is the only one who does not have a girl-friend, he feels unattractive and has lost interest in everything. He is bothered by these thoughts day and night. He often wonders why this is happening to him and he wishes that he were dead

  10. Activity 6 -Key Messages No matter what the disability, what the situation/personal issues – each person is precious, has specific personal attributes, is valued and has equal rights, dignity and is worthy of respect as any other person. • It is essential for all young people/adults to have a sense of appreciation and respect for self. • When we respect our self, others will respect us. • We have to use our life to the best of our ability, developing it to its full potential and protecting it from every danger (physical or moral) and from any physical abuse.

  11. Definition Values are beliefs, principles or standards that a person feels are important. Your values are what “you think” is right or wrong. Activity 7

  12. Activity 7 -Key Messages • Boys & girls are socializd into differnet roles nd often have different social beliefs. • Each person needs to be able to sort out and make clear what his or her personal values, beliefs and feelings are. • Your values are what “you think” is right & wrong. • It is important for a facilitator to respect the beliefs and opinions of participants and be non-judgemental. • Peer pressure and social pressure may make compel us into certain actions which are contradictory to our belief system.

  13. DAY 2 Session 7Healthy Growing Up & ARSH

  14. Definition of Sexuality “Human Sexuality is a function of your whole personality that begins at birth and ends at death”. It includes: • How you feel about yourself as a person • How you feel about being a woman or a man, and

  15. Cont…. • How you get along with members of the same sex and the opposite sex. Sexuality also includes genital and reproductive processes such as intercourse and childbearing, but it is much more than this.

  16. Studies show that nearly 20% of 1.5 million girls under the age of 15 years are already mothers (Census 2001). • Death among female adolescents (15-19) is higher due to nutritional status, early marriage and complications during pregnancy. (CSO 2002, SRS 1999).

  17. Adolescent mothers are at higher risk of miscarriages, and giving birth to still born babies. • Unless we ourselves are aware of structure and function of reproductive organs we will not be able to communicate the same to the adolescents. • Without sufficient knowledge, skills cannot be enhanced.

  18. Reproductive Health Reproductive Healthis a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes.

  19. Consequences of teenage pregnancy • Family problems • Social and community problems • Education problems • Psychological problems • Health problems • Depression and suicide • Problems for the baby of a teenage mother • Associated RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS, if any • Effect on future pregnancies • Complications of illegal abortion.

  20. Key Messages • The sex of the baby is a matter of chance i.e., it depends upon the type of the sperm that fertilizes with the egg & whether it contains the ‘X’ chromosome or the ‘Y’ chromosome. • Indulging in sexual practices at a young age has a lot of implications. Such as early teenage pregnancy, STIs, etc. Thus, abstinence till marriage should be practised. • Information, particularly about taboo subjects such as growing up, sexuality, contains several myths and misconceptions which can hamper informed decision making.

  21. Discussion with parents/trusted adults can help adolescents in clarifying their knowledge and values related to his topic. • Saying ‘No’ and delaying sexual initiation should be learnt by both genders. • Discussion and knowledge of birth control does not imply that students are, or should be sexually active. • Young people should know that each one has control over his/her body. So one should make decisions & learn to be assertive in such a manner that no harm comes to one’s body and self.

  22. A mature reproductive system means mature handling of its functioning and refusing to be pressurized into proving one’s masculinity/feminity. • Sex is not just a physical act, but only one aspect of a relationship in which trust, communication and mutual respect are important elements. • In adolescence, physical readiness for sexual relationships is not accompanied by the emotional maturity to cope with the responsibilities of such a relationship. • Sexual activity should never be impo0sed or have any violence associated with it.

  23. Activity 9

  24. Case study Sunita is a 16 year old girl studying in class XI. Lately she gets angry and irritable on every small issue, tends to avoid family members and does not meet her friends. Not being able to tolerate it any more she breaks down and tells her best friend that her neighbour has been physical with her since the last 5 years. She fears that she may be pregnant.

  25. Temporary Methods Male: Condom Female: Condom, oral pill, Copper T Permanent methods Male: Vasectomy Female: Tubectomy

  26. Key messages • There are a lot of implications involved when one indulges in sexual practices at a young age such as early teenage pregnancy, STI’s etc. Thus, abstinence till marriage should be practiced. • Early pregnancy (teenage pregnancy) has a major impact on a girl’s life much more than for the boy. It is essential for adolescent boys to understand the serious consequences of early pregnancy for the girl.

  27. Cont… • Discussion with parents/trusted adults can help adolescents in clarifying their values related to this topic. Saying ‘No’ and delaying sexual initiation should be learnt by both the genders. • Discussion and knowledge of birth control does not imply that students are or should be sexually active.

  28. Activity 10

  29. Friendship:A friend is one with whom we can share our thoughts and feelings. A friend understands us and we can trust them. In friendship there is give and take.Marriage:Marriage is not merely a contract or a partnership but is a total union of man and woman for life. Marriage requires love and a commitment of love, maturity and adjustment.Infatuation:It is an emotional or physical attraction with romantic or sexual feelings and it is often characterized by absorption, jealousy at times and daydreams. Relationships

  30. Love:It is the most beautiful of all human experiences. It is the gift of one’s self for the welfare and happiness of the other. It can be between parents and children, brother and sister, husband and wife. Basically, all love (whether between parents and children, or brother and sister, or husband and wife) is the same. But importantly, the unity and the expression of that love differs in each type of relationship

  31. Key Messages • As physical changes occur during adolescence, they also experience changes in their feelings. • During puberty, both girls and boys develop desire to interact with each other. • Adolescents need to learn to regulate their sexual feelings in a friendship.

  32. Cont… • It is important to communicate to the adolescents that they are responsible for the decisions and actions they take. • A good friend should be trustworthy, reliable, empathetic, caring. • Best relationships result from both people contributing to the positive qualities. A good relationship requires mutual trust, give and take commitment, maturity and adjustment.

  33. Activity 11

  34. Sexis biological – it is whether a person is born male or female. • Gender rolesare ideas about how men and women should behave. Because gender roles are created by society, it is possible to change them.

  35. Genderdescribes whether someone is masculine or feminine according to behavioural differences, for example, how they dress, their work and their status in society. These characteristics are defined by each culture so they can be different in different cultures and they can change.

  36. Key Messages • No one gender is inferior to the other. • Given a chance both can perform complementary roles. • Different people and cultures have different ideas and beliefs about gender role and responsibility. • No one view point is the absolute truth as they change with socio cultural changes. • Learning to tolerate and respect alternate viewpoints and building a consensus is an important life skill.

  37. Activity 12 - Key Messages • It is important for young people to verify the information that they collect from various formal and non-formal sources. • Information particularly about taboo subjects such as Growing Up, Sexuality, HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse contains several myths and misconceptions which can come in the way of informed decision making.

  38. Session 8 RTI / STI & HIV / AIDS

  39. RTIs These are infections of the upper and lower reproductive tract in both males and females. All RTIs are not sexually transmitted. Some may occur due to imbalance of the normal bacteria in the reproductive tract. Agents of infection are bacteria, viruses or protozoa. STIs STIs are RTIs transmitted during sexual intercourse/ activity. Some of them have no cure.

  40. RTIs / STIs

  41. Factors that contribute to the spread of STI’s • History of unprotected sexual activity in the recent past. • Transmission by the infected mother to her child during pregnancy. • Sexual partner having sore on the genital region or urethral discharge.

  42. Symptoms Unusual vaginal discharge. Penile discharge Abnormal and/or heavy vaginal bleeding. Bleeding from vagina in between regular period. Bleeding after intercourse Burning or pain during urination Itching or tingling in the genital area. Pelvic pain (pain below the belly button). Penile discharge Swollen and painful testicles. Warts, bumps, blisters, sores on genitals, anus or surrounding areas. Yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice) Diseases Bacterial vaginosis Chlamydia Gonorrhea Trichomoniasis Yeast infections Pelvic inflammation disease (PID) Herpes Syphilis Human papillomavirus HIV /AIDS Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Symptoms and signs of STI Symptoms

  43. Consequences of untreated STIs • Infected persons can transmit STI to their partners. • The reproductive organs of the infected person could get damaged, resulting in infertility or sterility. • A pregnant woman can transmit it to her baby, resulting in the infant suffering from congenital defects/malformations, deafness or blindness. • There is increased vulnerability to HIV. • There are increased chances of cervical cancer. • Repeated abortions or even foetal death could take place.

  44. Prevention and Treatment of STI • Improving knowledge of RTIs/STIs via adolescent health education. • Maintaining proper genital hygiene; girls should also maintain good menstrual hygiene. • Practising responsible sexual behaviour; being faithful to one partner. • Practising safe sex; using condoms.

  45. Avoiding sexual contact if either partner has an STI. • Not neglecting any unusual discharge. • Seeking medical help immediately. • Avoiding quacks. • Ensuring complete treatment of self and sexual partner (partner treatment).

  46. Key Messages: • Both girls and boys should practice proper pubic hygiene to prevent RTI. • Girls should follow proper menstrual hygiene to prevent RTI. • It is important to remember that the symptoms of RTI/STI will go away after some time even without treatment; but the disease remains in the body and causes damage to the reproductive tract. Hence all RTIs/STIS must be treated adequately and early.

  47. Qualified doctors are the only ones who can give a guarantee of care. Self-medication and quacks do more harm than good and therefore should be avoided. If one person gets an STI, the other sexual partner should also be examined • STIs increase vulnerability to infections such as HIV. • Abstinence and protected sexual intercourse are the best form of protection from STI.

  48. Activity 14

  49. What is HIV ?Human Immunodeficiency VirusHence, HIV is present only in humans.