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HEROD and the HASMONEANS. Mattathias d. 166 BC. John d. 160 BC. Simon High Priest 142-135 BC. Judas High Priest 165-162 BC. Eliezer d. 162 BC. Jonathan High Priest d. 166 BC. John Hyrcanus I Ruled 134-104 BC. Mattathias d. 134 BC. Judah d. 134 BC. Aristobulus I Ruled

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HEROD and the HASMONEANS

Mattathias

d. 166 BC

John

d. 160 BC

Simon

High Priest

142-135 BC

Judas

High Priest

165-162 BC

Eliezer

d. 162 BC

Jonathan

High Priest

d. 166 BC

John Hyrcanus I

Ruled

134-104 BC

Mattathias

d. 134 BC

Judah

d. 134 BC

Aristobulus I

Ruled

104-103 BC

Alexander Janneus

Ruled

103-76 BC

Antigonus

d. 107 BC

Absalom

?

Alexandra

Salome

Ruled

76-67 BC

Aristobulus II

Ruled (POMPEY)

66-63 BC

Contested

the Throne

Hyrcanus II

High Priest / King

75-66, 63-40 BC

Alexandra

Antipater

HEROD

the Great

Ruled 37-4 BC

Antigonus

Ruled

(UNDER PARTHIANS)

40-37 BC

Alexander

d. 53 BC

Phasaelus

Mariamne I

Married to

Herod the Great

slide3

ANTIPATER

48 – 43 BC

“Procurator of Judea”

Supporter of Hyrcanus II

HEROD AGRIPPA II

AD 50 – 92

***Last Herod!***

Doris

37 BC - Divorced

ANTIPATER

Removed as Heir

II

HEROD AGRIPPA I

AD 37 – 44

ARISTOBULUS

7 BC Executed

Hasmonean

Mariamne(1)

29 BC - Executed

Hasmonean

I

Bernice

HEROD

THE GREAT

43 – 37 BC

“Tetrarch of Judea”

37 – 4 BC

“King of Judea”

ALEXANDER

7 BC Executed

Hasmonean

Herodias

PHASEAL

43 – 40 BC

“Tetrarch of Judea”

Killed during

Parthian invasion

I

Glaphyra

Mariamne(2)

5 BC – Divorced

Jewish

HEROD PHILIP

5 BC – Removed as Heir

Herodias

III

Malthake

Samaritan

Salome

Cleopatra

“of Jerusalem”

JUDEA, SAMARIA, AND IDUMEA

GALILEE AND PEREA

ITUREA AND TRACHONITIS

Archelaus

4 BC – AD 6

“Ethnarch of Judea”

Philip

4 BC – AD 34

“Tetrarch”

Herod Antipas

4 BC – AD 36

“Tetrarch”

Will

IV

Will

Will

Salome

Herodias

Glaphyra

herod s will

ITUREA

HEROD’S WILL

GALILEE

TRACHONITIS

Archelaus

“Ethnarch” of Judea,

Samaria, and Idumea

Herod Antipas

“Tetrarch” of

Galilee and Perea

Philip

“Tetrarch” of

Itureaand Trachonitas

Decapolis

SAMARIA

PEREA

JUDEA

IDUMEA

rise of roman control
Rise of Roman Control

The Demise of Archelaus

Joint embassy of Jews and Samaritans complain of injustice

Archelausis dismissed by Augustus and his estate is liquidated

Augustus Calls for another Census of Judea

This census was carried out by Quirinius, Governor of Syria

This apparently conflicts with Luke 2:2

A Jewish man from Gamala rebelled over this census (Acts 5:37)

This revolt was the beginning of the Zealots as a major party

roman governors under augustus
Roman Governors Under Augustus

Coponius as Governor (AD 6-9)

First Roman Prefect of Judea

Kept custody of High Priestly garments in Antonian Fortress

Seat of the Government is moved from Jerusalem to Caesarea

Roman governors resided in Jerusalem only during festivals

This is why Pilate is in Jerusalem at the time of Jesus’ trial

Samaritan uprising occurs during Coponius’s rule

Bones are spread in the sacred precincts of the Temple

This was likely an effort to defile the Jewish Temple in favor of their own

This adds to the Good Samaritan and the Samaritan woman at the well

roman governors under augustus1
Roman Governors Under Augustus

Marcus Ambivius (AD 9-12)

Little is known

Name might have been “Amphiboulos”

Annius Rufus (AD 12-15)

In office when Augustus dies (August 19, AD 14)

Replaced when the new Emperor comes to power

rise of tiberius julius caesar
Rise of Tiberius Julius Caesar

Tiberius Claudius Nero/Tiberius Julius Caesar (AD 14-37)

Mother divorced Claudius Nero and married Caesar Augustus

Marcus Vispasianus Agrippa was originally the heir-apparent

Agrippa’s death put Tiberius next in line being the step-son

Note: Agrippa was close friends with Herod the Great

Tiberius was a good general but a bad emperor

It seems that Tiberius did not want to be Caesar

He moved to the Island of Capri after AD 26

Did not attend any meetings of the senate

Sejanus, his commander of the Praetorian Guard, governed for him

rise of tiberius julius caesar1
Rise of Tiberius Julius Caesar

Sejanus and Tiberius

Sejanus was anti-Jewish in his policies and in practice

He expelled the Jews from Rome

He persecuted the Jews in Alexandria, Egypt

Sejanus is likely the one who appointed Pontius Pilate

Sejanus plotted to overthrow Tiberius in Tiberius’s absence

Tiberius finds out and returns to Rome and has Sejanus executed

Sejanus supporters are also interrogated and executed

This might explain why the Jewish reference to Pilate as not being a “Friend of Caesar” was so effective in manipulating his decision during the trial of Jesus since he was likely a supporter of Sejanus

roman governors under tiberius
Roman Governors Under Tiberius

The Change in Policy under Tiberius

Augustus switched governors every three years

Tiberius gave governors much longer terms (parable of the flies)

ValeriusGratus (AD 15-26)

Changed High Priest four times during his time as governor

The first High Priest he removed was Annas (Ananus in Josephus)

The last High Priest he chose was Joseph Caiaphas

Changing the High Priest was likely a means of gaining money

pontius pilatus
Pontius Pilatus

The Roman Standards Affair

Pilate secretly brought military standards into Jerusalem at night

The people protested, following him back to Caesarea

Pilate threatens to have them executed

The Jews gathered lay their necks bare for the executioner

Pilate, not wanting an early bloodbath, removed the standards

The Guilded Shields Affair

Pilate sought to dedicate Roman shields to be hung in the temple

Jews protest to Tiberius and Pilate is ordered to stand down

pontius pilatus1
Pontius Pilatus

The Temple Aquaduct Affair

Pilate secures funds from temple treasury to build an aquaduct

The aquaduct was a great benefit to the temple

Pilate may even have done this as a political gesture of good will

Temple authorities saw it as a secular use of sacred funds

Crowds gather to protest and are forcibly broken up

This is likely what is referenced in Luke 13:1

pontius pilatus2
Pontius Pilatus

Pilate and the Trial of Jesus

Sejanus, Pilate’s patron, falls from power in AD 31

Pilate’s fear of uprising and reprisals from Caesar may be due to his insecurity following the execution of his patron

The better choice for the trial of Jesus between AD 30 and 33 would more likely be the latter

Pilate is removed from power in AD 36

Tradition has him being exiled to Vienne in Gaul (France)

Tradition also has him committing suicide (sources are late)

pontius pilatus3
Pontius Pilatus

Pilate and Archeology

Archeology had questioned the existance of Pontius Pilate

An inscription found in Caesarea settled it showing that Pilate was clearly historical

TIBERIEVM

VSPILATVS

ECTVSIVDE

  • …S
  • PONTI
  • A
  • PRAEF
gaius julius caesar augustus germanicus
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus

Emperor Caligula (AD 37-41)

“Caligula” means “little combat boots”

Nickname came from the mini uniform he wore as a child

Rise to Power

Son of Germanicus, a famous Roman general

Caesar Augustus was his mother’s grandfather

He was very popular with the people

He promised change from the unpopular reign of Tiberius

Note: One of his best friends was Herod Agrippa I (Herod of Acts 12)

gaius julius caesar augustus germanicus1
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus

Descent into Madness

Caligula did well in the first six months of his reign

He became deathly ill and came back a “new man”

Required the death of those who had promised their lives to the gods should he recover

Appointed his sister as heir, breeding many rumors

Built the ultimate bridge to nowhere

Had himself deified while still alive and built a temple in his own honor

Deified his sister upon her untimely death

Entertained every form of immorality

gaius julius caesar augustus germanicus2
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus

Roman Governor of Judea

Marcellus (Marrullus), who was appointed by Tiberius

Caligula did not make changes to the governor of Judea

Military Achievements

Germania

Campaign is interrupted by conspiracy

Caligula executes some of his high officials and returns to Rome

Britania

Caligula marched his armies to the shores across from Britain

He orders his men to collect sea shells as spoil and returns to Rome

gaius julius caesar augustus germanicus3
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus

The Assassination of Caligula/Gaius

Stabbed by Three Praetorian Guards in a secluded hallway.

Some of the Senate were in on the assassination plot

Other members of the imperial line were also executed

Praetorian Guards placed Claudias into power

First of many power moves made by the Praetorian Guard

The Senate opposed Claudius at first

Herod Agrippa I helped to negotiate between the Claudius and the Senate