Introduction to Romantics 1798-1832
The Beginning? • Disagreement • history, • literature Book starts with Lyrical ballads (Coleridge / Wordsworth) • 1789 - Burns and Blake because they were more similar to the Romantics than the Restoration. • Agreement – ending date – 1832 – Parliamentary Reforms in • 1789 – 1832 • French Rev. began in 1789
ADJECTIVES/THE ROMANTIC PERIOD1798-1832 • Turbulent • Revolutionary • Frustrating • Idealistic • Radical changes in life and thinking • Changes/reforms • sometimes violent; sometimes peaceful. • New focus = common man • Search for ways to improve • which sometimes resulted in frustration.
6 Characteristics/Traits of Romantic Poetry • Ideal • A perfect situation. • Romantics admired the pursuit of the ideal, of attempting to perfect what they could.
6 Characteristics/Traits of Romantic Poetrycontinued • Individual • The power of one person to affect change, to make a difference (good or bad) in people’s lives and the world.
6 Characteristics/Traits of Romantic Poetrycontinued • Imagination • The power of the mind to go “outside the box.” • To delve into a realm outside of logic, and the ability of the mind to CREATE .
6 Characteristics/Traits of Romantic Poetrycontinued • Intuition • The FEELING one has about something that cannot be explained through logical reasoning.
6 Characteristics/Traits of Romantic Poetrycontinued • Nature – • The belief that Nature should be respected, revered, almost worshiped; • Humans should strive for a “oneness” with Nature. • If the unity/union between humanity and nature is broken, a “disconnectedness” prevails and carries over into human relationships; • If allowed to continue, a breakdown of society could follow.
6 Characteristics/Traits of Romantic Poetrycontinued • Supernatural • The belief that forces exist beyond human comprehension (that can’t be explained through logic). • Anything religious or spiritual falls into this category.
Romantic Period Discussion 1798-1832 • The Romantic Period began with the publication of Wordsworth’s _____________________________________. Lyrical Ballads
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • Which two Romantic poets published a book of poetry together at the beginning of the Romantic Period? • _______________________________ • _______________________________ • Which two poems published in that book are considered among the most important in English literature? • _______________________________ • _______________________________ Coleridge Wordsworth Wordsworth’s “Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey” Coleridge’s “Rime of the Ancient Mariner”
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • What political uprising happened in Europe at the beginning of this time period that affected the writers and their works? • _______________________________________ • Which six poets dominated the Romantic era? • _______________________________ • _______________________________ • _______________________________ • _______________________________ • _______________________________ • _______________________________ French Revolution - 1789 Blake Wordsworth Coleridge Shelley Byron Keats
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • Which of those six were considered first generation? • ______________________________________ • _____________________________________ • _____________________________________ • Which of those six were considered second generation? • ______________________________________ • ______________________________________ • ______________________________________ Blake Wordsworth Coleridge Shelley Byron Keats
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • An age of revolution began in American in the year _____________ with the _______________________________. This spirit spread across Western Europe, releasing _____________________________________________ forces that produced some of the most radical changes inhuman life. • How did the American Revolution specifically affect England? • ________________________________________________________ • Which revolution affected England most—the American or the French? • ______________ Why? ______________________ 1776 American Revolution political, economic and social Loss of economy, prestige, and confidence French Europe is unstable and nearer to England.
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • For the ruling class of England, the French Revolution came to represent their worst fear: • __________________________________ • Not all of England hated the French Revolution. Democratic idealists and liberals like ___________ backed it. • However, many supporters of the French Revolution were disillusioned by: • ______________________________________ • _____________________________________________________ Overthrow of an anointed king by democratic rabble. Wordsworth September massacre – killing of 100’s of French aristocrats by guillotine. Commoners became the tyrants.
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • ______________________ first emerged as a dictator of France, then as an _________. His name is synonymous with the word ______. He was as ruthless when he executed king himself. • Napoleon’s navy was defeated at the Battle of _______________ in 1805 and at ________________ in 1815 by the __________________________. • What happened to society because of the effects of the Industrial Revolution? • A shift in _______________________, the population of ________ increased, and appalling __________________conditions. Napoleon Bonaparte emperor tyrant Trafalgar Waterloo (Belgium) English/British allies manufacturing cities housing/living
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • Communal land was taken over by ________________________ which resulted in large numbers of _______________________. Because of this they migrated to the __________. • The economic philosophy that kept all this misery going was a policy called ____________, which means ________________________. • The result of this policy is that the rich grew _______ and the poor grew _______, suffering even more. individual private landowners homeless/landless people cities laissez-faire let it alone/let people do as they please. richer poorer
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • Frustrated by England’s resistance to political and social change, the Romantic poets turned from the formal, public verse of the eighteenth century Augustans to a more private, spontaneous ________________________________. lyric poetry
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • Three useful meanings of the term “Romantic:” • Term signifies a fascination with _______ and ____________, with “growing up” by _______________ and _____________ to trust our _________________ and our sense of will and dignity. youth innocence exploring learning emotions
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • Term refers to stage in cyclical development of societies: stage when people need to ______________________________ in order to imagine better. This definition is associated with ____________. • Western societies reached the conditions for industrialization. This demanded that people acquire a stronger awareness of _______________ and that they find ways to ________________ to it. • The Romantic poets were often called ______ poets. question tradition and authority idealism change adapt (or die) nature
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • The ROMANTIC VIEW of nature is NOT HOSTILE. The Romantic poets had a strong sense of the __________________________ of the natural world. Their concept of nature might be called PSYCHOLOGICAL because they believed that the mind of man is a ____________ to the __________________________________ of nature. • The ____________ is also a kind of desire, a motive that drives the ______ to ______________ and ____________ it cannot learn by rational and logical thinking. • Wordsworth says that a poet is a man ________________ to men. mysterious qualities/forces mirror fairest and most interesting properties imagination mind learn know things speaking
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • Wordsworth also says, “A poet is someone who writes a poem in which there is a man ‘speaking to men’ in order to _____________________________________________. • The _________ in the poem is different from the poet. This ________ speaks to someone or something else. • Not only does a reader need to imagine that the “speaking” is taking place, but a reader needs to consider ___________ of speaking is taking place. accomplish something else (listen to content, believe, change mind, appreciate nature, etc. speaker speaker what kind
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • The speaking in lyric poetry is not the Augustan reasoning in verse. It is a more _______________________ speaking from the __________________. • The artful illusion of the voice of the speaker (the poet tries to accomplish through the speaker) conveys certain ___________ or _____________________. • The speaker of the poem is seen as an __________________ which is a very democratic idea. • Poetry during this period is to be about human _______________ about the fundamental relationship between the ______________ (including the _________ and ______________ and other ________________ and ______________. passionate heart truths ideas ordinary person experience mind heart imagination things people
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • The speaking in a lyric poem must be ___________________. • The poet is a __________________ person, with more sensibility enthusiasm, and tenderness. He is also a ______, an inspired revealer and _______________. He brings “the whole _____________ of man into activity by employing that synthetic and magical power … the _________________.” He has also been called a ___________________ to all men, pouring out a __________________ upon the world. • The poet is someone that _______________ cannot do without. convincing/believable special and adored bard teacher soul imagination physician balm human beings
Romantic Period Discussioncontinued … • Define LYRIC POETRY. Use the handbook of literary terms from the back of your literature book to find this answer: • _______________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________ Poetry that focuses on expressing emotions or thoughts rather than on telling a story. Melodeons (musical qualities) activated through rhyme, alliteration and onomatopoeia.