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CE403 Construction Methodology. Wood Construction. Wood Construction. Workability Joinability Easy Handling Relatively Low Cost Natural Beauty. Advantages. Disadvantages. Combustability Moisture Expansion Termites & Fungi Defects. Going Metric. Hard Conversion

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wood construction
Wood Construction
  • Workability
  • Joinability
  • Easy Handling
  • Relatively Low Cost
  • Natural Beauty

Advantages

Disadvantages

  • Combustability
  • Moisture Expansion
  • Termites & Fungi
  • Defects
going metric
Going Metric
  • Hard Conversion
    • Plywood: from 4 x 8 to 1200 x 2400 mm
    • Spacing: from 16” o.c & 24” o.c. to 400 mm or 600 mm
    • 2 x 4 will be called “50 x 100 mm”
  • Otherwise, soft conversion
wood anatomy basics
Wood Anatomy Basics
  • Grain: cell structure configuration
    • Summer wood & Spring Wood
  • Anisotropic: Grain direction drives properties
    • Parallel: high strength

& low strain

    • Perpendicular:

high strain

wood anatomy basics1
Wood Anatomy Basics
  • Grain: cell structure configuration
    • Summer wood & Spring Wood
  • Anisotropic: Grain direction drives properties
    • Parallel: high strength

& low strain

    • Perpendicular:

high strain

wood properties
Wood Properties
  • Species dependent
    • Hard woods: deciduous
    • Soft woods: evergreen (typically); Conifers (always –needles) – 75% of U.S. Commercial Lumber
  • Moisture content dependent
    • Strength; shrinkage
  • Wide ranging density
    • 25-50 lb/cf.
moisture content
Moisture Content
  • (Wmoist – Wdry)/Wdry
  • Seasoned: < 15% M.C.
  • Fiber Saturation Point (FSP):
    • Only bound water, no free water
    • M.C.: 20-30% depends on species
  • M.C. < F.S.P.: shrinkage; increased strength
doug fir so pine properties
Doug. Fir/So. Pine Properties
  • Density 30lb./cf
  • E 1,500 ksi
  • Fy – tensile 8,000 psi parallel
  • Fy – compressive 3,500 psi parallel

350 psi perpend.

  • Working stress modifiers: load duration, defects
wood processing 4 steps
Wood Processing: 4 Steps
  • Saw

Plain sawn vs. quarter sawn

  • Season

< 15% moisture content

  • Surface
  • Grade
wood processing 4 steps1
Wood Processing: 4 Steps
  • Saw

Plain sawn vs. quarter sawn

  • Season

< 15% moisture content

  • Surface
  • Grade
grade defects
Grade Defects
  • Natural:
    • Shake and Knots
unit of measure volume
Unit of Measure: Volume
  • Board Foot
    • In rough, green condition
    • 12” x 12” x 1” (144 cu. In)
    • MBF or MBM = 1000 board feet
  • Nominal versus Actual dimensions
    • Nominal: the intended or approximate size but this may (and often does) vary from the actual dimension.
plywood
Plywood
  • Glued together plies
  • Plies shaved from rotating log
  • Each ply is approx. 1/8” thick
  • Odd number of plies – 3, 5, 7, & 9
  • Plies seasoned to 5% moisture content.
  • Grain direction alternates
plywood1
Plywood
  • Glued together plies
  • Plies shaved from rotating log
  • Each ply is approx. 1/8” thick
  • Odd number of plies – 3, 5, 7, & 9
  • Plies seasoned to 5% moisture content.
  • Grain direction alternates
plywood2
Plywood
  • Grain is parallel to long dimension on outer face (strong direction)
  • Exterior vs. interior grade: type of adhesive
    • Interior: water resistant
    • Exterior: waterproof
residential framing
Residential Framing
  • Platform vs. Balloon Framing
    • Ease of construction vs. structural strain
  • Bridging between joists
    • Helps distribute point loads
    • 2 types: cross bridging and solid blocking
  • Plywood box beams
residential framing1
Residential Framing
  • Platform vs. Balloon Framing
    • Ease of construction vs. structural strain
  • Bridging between joists
    • Helps distribute point loads
    • 2 types: cross bridging and solid blocking
  • Plywood box beams
rafters roof trusses
Rafters & Roof Trusses
  • Advantages of Roof Trusses:
    • Interior walls can be nonbearing;
    • Economy;
    • Controlled quality; and
    • Less Skilled Labor required
glu lam members
Glu-Lam Members
  • Built-up glued laminations of dimension lumber
  • Very large sections & spans possible
  • Cheaper material than solid beam
  • Defects can be eliminated
  • Unique shapes possible: curved frames, arches
connections nails
Connections: Nails
  • Size: “penny” designation (d)
    • Based on original cost of 100 nails
  • Sold by 100 lb. keg
  • Many Types:
    • Common
    • Casing
    • Finishing
    • Specialty: concrete, roofing, drywall, siding…
nail connection configuration strength
Nail Connection Configuration & Strength
  • Strongest
    • Nail perpendicular to grain
    • Nail subjected to shear
    • E.g. face nailing
  • Weakest
    • Nail parallel to grain
    • Nail subjected to withdrawal forces
    • E.g. end nailing
nailed connection configuration
Nailed Connection Configuration
  • Relative to board face, edge, or end
    • Face Nailing – face-to-edge, face-to-face
    • End Nailing – face-to-end
    • Toe Nailing – angled thru edge-to-edge, or angled thru face-to-face
  • Specialty configurations
    • Blind nailing – flooring to subflooring
screw bolt connections
Screw & Bolt Connections
  • Common to both:
    • Head
    • External threads
  • Screws: threads in contact with wood fibers; usually pointed (vs. blunt)
  • Bolts: threads in contact with nut
    • Washers between bolt head/wood and nut/wood
split ring connector
Split Ring Connector
  • Ring-shaped metal insert placed in pre-cut circular grooves in two wood members and held together by a bolt/nut
  • Distributes shear load over larger area
  • Good for large shear loads
    • Very large truss joints