Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition. Time to pull out those maps. Ming and Qing Empires. Here is your reference point - BEIJING. Qing. MING. FIRST - On your map mark the Ming dynasty SECOND - mark all the extended boundaries that make the Qing dynasty. Ming Dynasty of China 1368-1600.
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Asia and Islamic Empires in Transition • Time to pull out those maps....
Ming and Qing Empires Here is your reference point - BEIJING Qing MING FIRST - On your map mark the Ming dynasty SECOND - mark all the extended boundaries that make the Qing dynasty
Ming Dynasty of China 1368-1600 MING • Early experienced sailors - used boats called junks • Spent $ on northern defense rather than explorations • fortified Great Wall in N. China. • gave land in area to soldiers for defense. • Restored Confucian ways. • Scholar gentry most important • merit system in securing gov’t offices • farmers • artisans • merchants (lowest b/c they produce nothing) • Nothing foreign allowed - no trade - no foreign people - they considered themselves self sufficient • DECLINE 1644 Northern tribes united under Manchurian ruler take over. Ming dynasty dies out.
Qing Dynasty of China 1644-1850 • Kept Chinese culture and society - • including Confucianism • Made native traditional Han Chinese wear • queue (tail) to signify submission • Traditional Manchu homeland only for • Manchurian - no intermarry - keep own language • Economy - grows, specialization in areas • canals • silk road • merchants become more important • Society • literature flourished. Philology - study of history of languages • Decline • corruption, disasters, foreigners pressure to be allowed to trade • White Lotus Rebellions - peasants rebel. • 1796-1800 then off/on ‘til 1850 • weakened Qing Qing
China and the Europeans Chinese culture views outsiders as inferior barbarians The Portuguese o Early 1500 Portuguese sailors work around coast to China. Some trade o 1557 – Trading station allowed at Macao o Jesuit missionaries o Astronomy open imperial court (they who had to predict such things) o Powerful positions allowed. o Catholic converts w/in high officials o Influence imperial policy Mark Macao on your map
China and the Europeans The British o 1600 Tea – all the rage in Br. - British East India Tea Company monopolized trade o Restrictions: must deal w/ only few Ch merchants. Special foreign settlements o Two changes o Free trade ideas ♣ Reaction to mercantilism. ♣ Advocated by other tea merchants not in the loop of Br East India Co ♣ Asked Ch to open more ports – rejected o Opium Trade ♣ Trade w Ch meant lots of silver flowing out of Ch economy ♣ Trade was for cotton from India but not enough Ch buy ♣ Intro new product: Opium ♣ Devasted Ch society ♣ Huge trade imbalance. ♣ Br refuse to stop
China and the Europeans The British o o Opium War o 1839-1842. British defeat the Chinese o 1842 Treaty of Nanjing o Hong Kong to Br. Special living places, enclaves, special rules, extraterritoriality - until 1999 when it reverted back to China o More o Unequal treaties o More concessions Kwoloon land more ports o Now other foreign powers – Russia France, etc. but not the U.S. Mark Taiwan on your map Mark Hong Kong on your map
China and the Europeans Rebellions o mid 1800s Hong Xiuguan Christian convert. Wants new dynasty. Lots of destruction lots of damange in Yangtze River Valley and in southern china o Taiping Rebellion 1850-1864 (this after the White Lotus Rebellion of earlier times (1796-1850) o Seriously weakened Qing dynasty o Foreign powers take advantage and estb more footholds
Japanese Shogunate Mark Japan on your map 1500-1860 o Late 1500s 3 daimyo emerge as leaders Built a centralized feudal system in Japan
Japanese Shogunate Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi o Either weakened diamyo by reducing territory and with sword hunt among peasants. o Peasants may not become warriors o Invaded Korea 2x but Chinese helped Korea defeat Toyotomi Tokugawa Ieyasu o Defeated his enemies. Capitol at Edo (now known as Tokyo). o Clearly took or expanded territories of vassals (diamyo) as needed o Tokugawa shogunate 200 yrs o Feudalism + central monarchy. o Peasants paid taxes to daimyo who were supported by samurai o Tokugawa owned ¼ but didn’t rule directly. o Didn’t personally tax whole population. o *Japan remained politically and economically decentralized o kept diamyo from making allies by requiring that they live in Edo every other year – families in Edo as hostages – that was expensive for diamyo. o This process transformed many diamyo from warrior to courtier o*Tokugawa helped b/c strong central gov’t meant stability 200 yrs o *kept trade restrictions and limited foreigners.
Japanese Shogunate Foreign Control o mid 1500s Portuguese in Japan. Brought o Christianity - Jesuits o Muskets – anti Samurai lifestyle o Tokugawa shoguns conclude Christianity was threat – weaken their authority o Evicted Portuguese o *island nation meant better able to achieve isolation than China
Japanese Shogunate Change in Japan o Like China – internal economic changes – production grew and specialized o *US Pres Millard Fillmore sent Commodore Matthew Perrysteamed into Tokyo bay in 1853 – amazing technology o negotiated 1854 – Treaty of Kanagawa. 2 ports to US for food, shelter o signed similar treaties with GB, Fr etc o foreigners estb. consulates – diplomatic offices o 1858 – allow ministers, diplomats, extraterritoriality o *1860 civil war in Japan…anti Tokuguawa forces calling for change. o New emperor – Meiji Rule
Ottoman Empire Add to your map
Ottoman Empire 1396 1st Sultanate Elite Army o Janissaries– young captured men, Christian slaves. Trained as Sultans personal guard. Elite. Became powerful in political arena. Elite slave troops Timur challenges the Ottomans o Turkko-Mongol leader Timur interrupted Ottoman expansion invaded 1402 o Born Uzbekistan, claim descent from Genghis Khan o Timur dies o Civil war among Ottomans as to who next Sultan oMurad II took over and began to expand o Mehmed II Took Constantinople 1453 – renamed Istanbul o Suleyman greatest Sultan. 1520-1566. The Magnificent. Lawgiver. o Lawgiver o Conquered Hungary 1526 o Nearly took Vienna o Vienna limit but rule most of eastern Europe, western Asia, and Northern Africa
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Gov’t and Society oSultans – o Grand viziers. second in command to the sultan o Two groups o Sultans o Peasants known as reaya (protected flock) o Liquid status rank o Meritocracy
Ottoman Empire Decline o Suleyman the Magnficent died 1566. o Navy and army strong but defeats at hands of Europeans o Phillip II 1571 navy against Ottomans o Loss control of profitable silk and spice trade o Europeans open water trade routes o Corruption – internal bureaucratic struggles o French invaded Egypt 1798 (Napoleon) an Ottoman possession o End 1923 when Turkey estb itself as a republic
The Safavid Empire Add the Ottoman and the Safavid Empire to your map
The Mughal Empire Add the Mughal Empire to your map
The Mughal Empire ♣1300 – 1500 India controlled by Turkish Muslims. Challenge by Rajputs– Indian warrior princes ♣This internal struggle drew attention of neighbors. ♣Attack by Babur the Tiger – descendent of Mongol leader Timur o He focused on India ♣1526 attacked Sultanate of Delhi. ♣Becomes core of Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire Ruler Akbar ♣1556-1603. ♣Married Rajput princess ♣Gave other Rajputs gov’t positions ♣Used force. ♣Control most of N India ♣Intro improved tax syst – done on 10 yr average of crop production- more equitable ♣ Religious Policy o Tolerant o Repealed non muslim tax o New creed blend elements of Hindu, Islam, Jainism, Christianity
The Mughal Empire ♣ Height of Empire oShah Jahan 1628-1658 oTaj Mahal at Agra and Hall of Private Audience. – expensive
The Mughal Empire oMystic Nanak united – Sikh faith ♣Devotion to one God ♣Lack of idols ♣Less rigid social sys ♣Conflicted with Hindu beliefs ♣1600s Sikhs become militant *enemies of Mughal Empire and Muslims