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Invasive Species: Biological Pollution in New York. Chuck O’Neill Senior Extension Associate NY Sea Grant / Cornell Cooperative Extension. Oneida Lake Invasive Species Seminar Syracuse, NY - March 2007. The Next 30 Minutes. Look at the overall Invasive Species problem:.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Invasive Species:

Biological Pollution

in

New York

Chuck O’Neill

Senior Extension Associate

NY Sea Grant / Cornell Cooperative Extension

Oneida Lake Invasive Species Seminar

Syracuse, NY - March 2007

slide4

The Next 30 Minutes. . .

Look at the overall Invasive Species problem:

  • What is an Invasive Species, anyway?
  • How do invasive species differ from non-native species?
  • Why should we be concerned?
  • How do invasive species get introduced?
  • Sample organisms (aquatic/terrestrial, plant/animal, pathogen)
slide5

Invasive Species

Species which have been transported – intentionally or unintentionally – into a geographic region outside their native ecosystem and which have become established (reproducing in self-sustaining populations) in that new environment, often causing significant harm (or potential of harm) to the environment, the economy, and/or to human health

What They Aren’t:

  • Non-indigenous Species / Non-Native Species
  • Exotic Species / Alien Species
  • From other locations
  • Not necessarily invasive or harmful
  • Many support human livelihoods or preferred quality of life
  • Nuisance Species
  • Harmful but not necessarily non-native or invasive
slide6

The Invasive Species Problem

As of 2000, almost 5000 nonindigenous species have established free-living populations in the U.S.

  • Compromise biological integrity - cause ecological instability – upset biodiversity
  • 15% have caused severe harm to agriculture, industry, human health, and environment
  • Cost of damages and control estimated at $123 Billion annually (Pimentelle 1999)
slide7

Zebra Mussels

Characteristics of Invasive Species

  • High abundance / high fecundity
  • Short generation time
  • Ability to occupy broad diversity of habitats – wide range of food
  • High genetic variability
  • Proximity to transmittal vector
slide8

Invasive Species Pathways

Transportation Related Pathways

Includes all pathways related to the transportation of people and goods

  • Subcategories include:
  • Plane, train, car, trucks, buses
  • Items Used in Shipping Process (cargo holds, ballast water, containers, packing material, baggage, travelers)
  • Travel/Tourism/Relocation
  • Mail/Internet/Overnight Shipping

ISAC 2003

slide9

Invasive Species Pathways

Living Industry (Plant and Animal) Pathways

  • Subcategories include:
  • Food Pathways (market ready for immediate consumption)
  • Non-Food Animal Pathways (aquarium trade, pets, non-food livestock, aquaculture, labs)
  • Plant Trade (aquatic and terrestrial)

ISAC 2003

slide10

Hurricane damage

Human mediated disturbance

Invasive Species Pathways

Miscellaneous Pathways

  • Other aquatic pathways (canals, interbasin transfers)
  • Ecosystem disturbance (highways, railways, pipeline & utility ROWs)
  • Natural Spread of Established Populations of Invasive Species

ISAC 2003

slide11

Geographic Source Regions

90

80

70

60

50

Number of Species

40

30

20

10

0

Asia

India

Africa

Pacific

Europe

Atlantic

Eurasia

Australia

Unknown

Gulf Coast

Arctic Ocean

New Zealand

Southern U.S.

South America

Newfoundland

Central America

Mississippi Basin

Various/Widespread

slide13

35

30

25

20

Number of Species

15

10

5

0

Pre-

1840-

1860-

1880-

1900-

1920-

1940-

1960-

1980-

1839

1859

1879

1899

1919

1939

1959

1979

2007

Time Interval

1810 – 2007

175+ Species Introduced

slide14

Sea lamprey – Petromyzon marinus

Vector - Canals

Dissolved barriers between basins (Interbasin Migration)

1825 – Erie Canal

  • Gov. Clinton dumps Lake Erie water into NY Harbor
  • Lake Erie-bound boats carried NY Harbor water
  • Foreshadowed large-scale future ballast transfers
  • Lake trout, walleye, cisco
  • Collapse of commercial fishing late-1940s/early-’50s
  • $20 Million/year (NYS ISTF 2005)
slide15

Vector – Intentional Introductions

  • Introduced Ornamental Plants
  • Government Sanctioned Sportfish
  • Government Agency - Fishery Enhancement
  • Government Agency - Fight Insect Pests
slide16

Blue sedge

Vector – Canals (Solid Ballast)

Plants

  • Flowering rush (Butomis umbellatus)
  • Weeping alkali grass (Puccinella distans)
  • Sedge (Carex flacca)
  • Yellow flag (Iris pseudocorus)
  • Creeping yellow cress (Rorippa sylvestris)
  • European water horewound (Lycopus europaeus)
  • European brooklime (Veronica beccabunga)

Invertebrates

  • Faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata)
  • European valve snail (Valvata piscinalis)
  • European pea clam (Pisidium amnicum)
slide17

True forget-me-not

Peppermint

Vector – Release from Cultivation

Medicinal Plants

  • Bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)
  • Peppermint (Mentha piperita)
  • Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

Food Plants

  • Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium aquaticum)

Forage Crop

  • Redtop (Agrostis gigantea)

Ornamental Plants

  • White willow (Salix alba)
  • Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum)
  • Black alder (Alnus glutinosa)
  • Glossy buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula)
  • Garden loosestrife (Lysmachia vulgaris)
  • True forget-me-not (Myosotis peltatum)
  • Bergamot mint (Mentha cintrata)
slide18

National

ANS

Clearinghouse

Zebra & “Quagga” mussels (Dreissena spp.)

  • Lake St. Clair {1988}
  • Direct physical impacts on infrastructure
  • Impacts beach use
  • Impacts navigation, recreation, angling
  • Food/habitat competition
  • Extirpation/extinction of native species
  • $1 - 1.5 Billion since 1988: 22 states, 2 provinces (NANSC 2006)
slide19

Buy on

Internet

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

  • Highly invasive
  • Invades shallowspawning grounds
  • Outcompetes native cattails & sedges
  • Little food value for animals
  • Thick stands  serve as wildlife cover
  • $45 Million/year (CRS 1999)
slide20

Buy on

Internet

Common reed (Phragmites australis)

  • Highly invasive
  • Dominates disturbed landscapes
  • Spreads rapidly, displaces natural, diverse plant communities
  • Rhizome monocultures 7,000 acres
slide21

M. spicatum

Buy on

Internet

Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum )

  • Highly invasive
  • Aggressive competitor
  • Reduces biodiversity
  • Reduces spawning habitat
  • Dense mats impair water uses
slide22

Water chestnut seed

Lake Champlain

Buy on

Internet

Water chestnut (Trapa natans)

  • Collins Lake, NY – 1884
  • Highly invasive
  • Outcompetes natives
  • Impenetrable mats
  • Severely limits light penetration
  • Reduces oxygen levels
  • Little value to water fowl
slide23

Buy on

Internet

TNC

Bufflegrass (Cenchrus ciliaris)

  • Dense thickets, out-competes/displaces native species
  • Highly flammable, wildfires kill off native grasses
  • Cannot be controlled (cutting/grazing increase plant growth; long roots inhibit digging out; herbicide & fire tolerant)
slide24

Asian Long-Horned Beetle

  • Wood packing material: NY (1996). Chicago (1998)
  • Attacks horse chestnut, maples, hardwood trees
  • > Damage than Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, gypsy moths
  • $13-40 Million/year in NYC and Long Island (NYS ISTF 2005)
slide25

Mute Swan (Cygnus olor)

  • Mid-1800s - early-1900s: Eurasia into estates, parks, zoos
  • > 22,000 live in along Atlantic coast & Great Lakes
  • Feed on submerged aquatic vegetation, reduce food for natives
  • Aggressive toward other waterfowl; displace native species
  • Attack kayakers and canoers
slide26

As of 9/13/02

Human infections

Avian, mosquito, or animal infections

GAO 2002

Range in 1999

GAO 2002

2005

West Nile Virus (Flavivirus)

  • 1999 – 2001: 149 human cases, 18 deaths
  • January - October 2002: 2977 human cases, 162 deaths
slide27

Chronic Wasting Disease

  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
  • Attacks brain & nervous system of deer and elk
  • Similar to mad cow disease
  • CO: captive mule deer late 1960s - wild elk 1981
  • WI: wild deer 2002
  • NY: captive & wild deer 2005
slide28

Dutch Elm Disease

  • 1930 – Nationwide except for desert SW
  • Caused by fungus Ophiostoma ulmi
  • Transmitted by 2 species of bark beetles
  • Destroyed > half elm trees
  • $100 Million/year control costs (Pimentele 1999)
slide29

Swede Midge (Contarinia nasturtii)

  • Ontario 1996 - Niagara Co. 2005
  • Feeds on cruciferous crops (cabbages, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, rutabaga, turnip, radish, horseradish)
  • Causes severe crop losses (up to 85%)
slide30

For More Information

Chuck O’Neill

Cornell Cooperative Extension - NY Sea Grant

cro4@cornell.edu

  • National Aquatic Nuisance Species Clearinghouse
    • http://www.aquaticinvaders.org