Invasive Tracers: CSI MISMO
Predicting and monitoring the spread of marine invasive species:Development of approaches and application to the green crab (Carcinus maenas) and shore crab (Hemigraspus sanguineus)
Outline • Background on Invasive Species • Created by invasion biologist: Dr. Anthony Ricciardi of the Department of Biology of McGill University and the Redpath Museum • Biology of the Crabs • Importance of Marine systems for invasion and modeling. • Objectives • Research questions • Spread & Monitoring Network • Take Home Messages
What is an ‘exotic species’? non-indigenous species alien species non-native species introduced species = a species introduced to a region beyond the range in which it evolved (i.e. beyond its ‘native range’). = Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
When does an introduced species become an invader? An introduced species has invaded when it establishes a self-sustaining population. Biological Invasion = the establishment of a species into a region beyond its natural range. Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
Biological invasion: the establishment of a species outside of its natural range. Geographic (or physiological) barrier Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
What is an ‘invasive’ species? • An introduced species that spreads rapidly. • Note: • ‘Invasive’ is a relative term. • Most introduced species are not invasive. • A species may be invasive in some regions • but not others. Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
Barriers to the establishment of an exotic species Donor region Geographic barrier Physiologicalbarrier Demographic resistance Biotic resistance Recipient region Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
What is Invasion Ecology? The study of the causes & consequences of biological invasions. • examines factors that influence establishment, • spread, and impact of introduced species. • a multidiscplinary science that combines elements from • multiple fields of study (e.g. community ecology, • population biology, biogeography, evolution, • genetics, conservation biology) Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
Biological Invasions are a form of • anthropogenic global change. • Invasions are occurring at • unprecedented rates & spatial scales. • 2. Virtually all of these are the result of • human activities. Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
Human-mediated invasions Natural invasions Frequency Spatial scale • “Natural” Invasions • = invasions without human influence. • rare on human time scales. • occur over small spatial scales • require the removal of either: • (1) a geographic barrier - • i.e. the creation of dispersal corridors • through glacial retreat, continental drift, or • chance events. • OR • (2) a physiological barrier - • e.g. a thermal barrier removed by climate change. Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
Rate of invasion in the Baltic Sea Cumulative number of invaders Year Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University) Cohen & Carlton (1998)
Rate of invasion in San Francisco Bay Cumulative number of invaders Year Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University) Cohen & Carlton (1998)
Cumulative Number of Invaders Time (Years since1790) Rate of invasion of marine coastal waters of North America Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University) Ruiz et al. (2000)
Rates of species invasion in Hawaii Prior to human settlement: 1 per 30,000 yrs (i.e. 0.00003/yr) After human settlement: 1 per 50 yrs (i.e. 0.5/yr) Recently (during the past century): 1 every 3 weeks (i.e. 20/yr) Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University) Data from Loope et al. (1988)
Why study invasions? • To understand how humans affect the • distribution & abundance of other species. • 2. Invasions are altering ecosystems worldwide. • 3. Invasions are a major cause of extinctions. • 4. Invasions impact multiple aspects of society • (e.g. natural resources, technological systems, • regional economies, human health). Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
Elton (1958) - • first book to examine the • phenomenon. • identified invasions as a • threat to the world’s distinct • faunal realms. • examined factors that • promote or inhibit invasions. • proposed hypotheses that • are still being tested today. Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Number of invasion books published since 1954 Number of Books 2002 1966 1982 1986 1990 1994 1958 1962 1970 1974 1978 1998 1954 Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University) Simberloff (2004)
Importance of Marine Systems • Composed of many heavily invaded ecosystems • Estuaries • Rocky coasts • Important for economics yields • Fishing • Lobsters • Shellfish • Understudied
Biology and importance of European Green Crab (C. maenas) • Economic damage by consuming: • Ecological damage by outcompeting, displacing: Native Crabs • Environmental tolerances to abiotic factors • Temperature: 22 to –1˚C • Salinity 54 to 4 ppt (great osmo-regulator) • Therefore due to its wide tolerances: Green crab is a generalist and an omnivore (eats almost anything!).
Green crab = Carcinus maenas • Native: Atlantic coasts of Europe • Europe and northern Africa • Invaded Areas: Australia, South Africa & both coasts of North America • Importance: • Fecundity 185,000 to 250,000 eggs each brood and more than 1 a year! • Long temporal record (187 years) • Discovered in 1817 in New Jersey • Lack of quantitative record and completeness http://cars.er.usgs.gov/posters/Nonindigenous/Nonindigenous_Crustaceans/nonindigenous_crustaceans.html
Biology of Hemigrapsus • Range: • Covers Portland, Maine to North Carolina and spreading! • Habitat: Rocky & cobblestone beaches • Invaded New Jersey in 1987 • Short temporal but quantitative record • Fecundity: 50,000 eggs per brood • 4 to 5 broods in a single breeding season http://cars.er.usgs.gov/Nonindigenous_Species/Asian_shore_crab/asian_shore_crab.html
How did it get to all these places? • Unintentional Vectors: • Ballast water transport of larvae form • With live food trade of oysters and lobsters or bait • Research use • Released pets • Secondary dispersal by currents
Green Vs. Asian Crab Durationof Data . • Green crab has a longer temporal and spatial record but gaps in each • Asian shore crabs has shorter temporal record but less gaps • Together, they offer a chance to create the first marine specific model. www.calacademy.org/ http://www.iisgcp.org/EXOTICSP/images/Japanese_shore_crab/hiraiso
Importance of the Project • Species spread is a central themes in invasion biology • Managing invasive species with scarce resources by prioritization. • Identify which areas are most at risk of becoming invaded • Early detection has been shown to increase chances of eradication of invasive species
Objectives • To forecast the spread of marine aquatic invaders • To determine the best approach to monitoring invasive species • To develop a long term volunteer monitoring network.
Questions • Is an invader absent in a location, or have we simply not observed it (in terms of probability)? • What is the effect of control (e.g., the removal of individuals) on the rate of spread? • How effective/reliable is a volunteer monitoring network? • Where will Hemigraspus spread? • What is the optimal monitoring strategy? • How sensitive is the spread model to life history parameters? To what extent can we extrapolate directly to other species (i.e., putting bounds on parameters)?
Current Modeling • Ecological forecasting has been done for terrestrial systems using: • Aquatic System: Yes for the fresh water aquatic invasive Zebra Mussels • Marine: Only applied terrestrial models that overestimate spread of MIS
General Methodology for Spread • To forecast invasions we will merge: • continuous spread models • discrete ecological spread models (human) • population dynamics • GIS • Oceanographic models (currents, temp, S) • Target organism expanded to any planktonically dispersed organisms • mollusks, fish, echinoderms, and other crustaceans
Current Models • Ecological forecasting has been done for terrestrial systems using: • Analytic models • reaction-diffusion • integro-difference models • Pro: Can characterize dispersal across the entire parameter space and often provide a simple metric of spread • Con: Do not account for spatial heterogeneity, local interactions, or stochasticity very well. • Individual based models that track the movement and dynamics of each individual • Aquatic System: Dreissena polymorpha • Marine: Only one attempt..
Marinve Vs. Terrestrial Spread Rates (Grosholz, 1996)
Become a Super Sleuth, We need your help! Please join the network at: www.invasivetracers.com http://www.sgnis.org/kids/index.html
Who is in the monitoring network? • The monitoring network will be constructed from volunteers across diverse groups, ranging from college and high school students to coastal communities: • MIT, Bowdoin College, College of the Atlantic • Elementary and High schools of many coastal states! • New England Aquarium’s Harbor Discoveries program, College of the Atlantic Summer camp • Acadia Institute of Oceanography • Schooner Sound Learning • The Nature Conservancy • Six communities volunteers around Salem Sound, MA
Participants of Pilot Program • Time: Commences spring of 2005 • Duration: 2 to 5 years • Benefits: • To maximize the amount of human resources • To maximize the effectiveness of monitoring MIS • Volunteer based science a potential solution to the ever-decreasing funding availability
Model to Forecast Spread • To predict rate and direction • Components: • propagule pressure & discrete spread (Shipping Activity) • Abiotic conditions of the receiving environment • Population model • Continuous spread • Large fecundity so cannot use individual based models • Further, the consequences of currents and their inter-annual variability, environmental heterogeneity, density dependence, and stochasticity
Monitoring is so important! • Monitoring is composed of 2 components • Detection (a single crab) • Abundance • Best techniques for monitoring depend on objective, density of crabs in the area, and the scale of the area (a beach vs. a whole coast of New England). • That citizen scientists in a regional (even international) network can provide key information for invasive monitoring even in the face of limited funding.
Can you make a difference? • YES!!! • How? • Do not release your pets into the wild “Free Willy Syndrome” • Gold fish in every pond in North America • Lion fish in the Atlantic Coast of North America • Piranhas in the Great Lakes • Bunnies on Lovell’s Island, Boston Harbor • Help scientists detect invasive species in your ‘hood! • Early detection increases chance of eradication
Techniques for monitoring • Quadrat searches • How many crabs in a square area of PVC pipe • Transect Searches • Walk a vertical line and collect any crabs that you fine on that line. • Better for sites with low densities • Needle (Crab) in a Hay Stack (Beach) • Crab Traps http://www.dal.ca/~cstaicer/Images/marine2/pages/INTERTI&.htm http://www.oberlin.edu/Geopage/Images/Transect.JPG
To help you need to memorize: Asian Shore Crab • Asian shore crab have three teeth on each side of the eye and large claws. • European Green crabs have 5 teeth on each side of the eye.How many letter in the word "green"? 5.How many teeth on each side of the eye on a European green crab? 5. • The native crabs, jonah and rock crab, both have 9 teeth and grow larger than both the invasive crabs. So if the crab has more than 6 teeth on eachside of the eye the crab is native. These two crabs are very hard todifferentiate but that is OK because they are both native. European Green Crab
How do you tell if a crab is male or female? The male has a thinner abdomen that look looks like light house. The female has a wider and more circular one that help it hold in hundred of thousands of eggs. This rule works for other species of crabs! http://wdfw.wa.gov/fish/ans/greencrab.htm