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Invasive Tracers: CSI MISMO Predicting and monitoring the spread of marine invasive species: Development of approaches and application to the green crab ( Carcinus maenas ) and shore crab ( Hemigraspus sanguineus) Outline Background on Invasive Species Created by invasion biologist:

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Predicting and monitoring the spread of marine invasive species:Development of approaches and application to the green crab (Carcinus maenas) and shore crab (Hemigraspus sanguineus)


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Outline species:

  • Background on Invasive Species

    • Created by invasion biologist:

      Dr. Anthony Ricciardi of the Department of Biology of McGill University and the Redpath Museum

  • Biology of the Crabs

  • Importance of Marine systems for invasion and modeling.

  • Objectives

  • Research questions

  • Spread & Monitoring Network

  • Take Home Messages


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What is an ‘exotic species’? species:

non-indigenous species

alien species

non-native species

introduced species

= a species introduced to a region

beyond the range in which it evolved

(i.e. beyond its ‘native range’).

=

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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When does an introduced species species:

become an invader?

An introduced species has invaded when

it establishes a self-sustaining population.

Biological Invasion

= the establishment of a species into

a region beyond its natural range.

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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Biological invasion species:: the establishment of

a species outside of its natural range.

Geographic

(or physiological) barrier

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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  • What is an ‘invasive’ species? species:

  • An introduced species that spreads rapidly.

  • Note:

  • ‘Invasive’ is a relative term.

  • Most introduced species are not invasive.

  • A species may be invasive in some regions

  • but not others.

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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Barriers to the establishment of an exotic species species:

Donor region

Geographic barrier

Physiologicalbarrier

Demographic resistance

Biotic resistance

Recipient region

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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  • What is Invasion Ecology? species:

    The study of the causes & consequences

    of biological invasions.

  • examines factors that influence establishment,

  • spread, and impact of introduced species.

  • a multidiscplinary science that combines elements from

  • multiple fields of study (e.g. community ecology,

  • population biology, biogeography, evolution,

  • genetics, conservation biology)

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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  • Biological Invasions are a form of species:

  • anthropogenic global change.

  • Invasions are occurring at

  • unprecedented rates & spatial scales.

  • 2. Virtually all of these are the result of

  • human activities.

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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Human-mediated species:

invasions

Natural

invasions

Frequency

Spatial scale

  • “Natural” Invasions

  • = invasions without human influence.

  • rare on human time scales.

  • occur over small spatial scales

  • require the removal of either:

  • (1) a geographic barrier -

  • i.e. the creation of dispersal corridors

  • through glacial retreat, continental drift, or

  • chance events.

  • OR

  • (2) a physiological barrier -

  • e.g. a thermal barrier removed by climate change.

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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Rate of invasion in the Baltic Sea species:

Cumulative number

of invaders

Year

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)

Cohen & Carlton (1998)


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Rate of invasion in San Francisco Bay species:

Cumulative number

of invaders

Year

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)

Cohen & Carlton (1998)


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Cumulative Number species:

of Invaders

Time (Years since1790)

Rate of invasion of marine coastal waters

of North America

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)

Ruiz et al. (2000)


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Rates of species invasion in Hawaii species:

Prior to human

settlement: 1 per 30,000 yrs (i.e. 0.00003/yr)

After human

settlement: 1 per 50 yrs (i.e. 0.5/yr)

Recently (during

the past century): 1 every 3 weeks (i.e. 20/yr)

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)

Data from Loope et al. (1988)


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  • Why study invasions? species:

  • To understand how humans affect the

  • distribution & abundance of other species.

  • 2. Invasions are altering ecosystems worldwide.

  • 3. Invasions are a major cause of extinctions.

  • 4. Invasions impact multiple aspects of society

  • (e.g. natural resources, technological systems,

  • regional economies, human health).

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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  • Elton (1958) - species:

  • first book to examine the

  • phenomenon.

  • identified invasions as a

  • threat to the world’s distinct

  • faunal realms.

  • examined factors that

  • promote or inhibit invasions.

  • proposed hypotheses that

  • are still being tested today.

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)


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30 species:

25

20

15

10

5

0

Number of invasion books published since 1954

Number of Books

2002

1966

1982

1986

1990

1994

1958

1962

1970

1974

1978

1998

1954

Dr. A. Ricciardi, lecture slides from Ecology of Species Invasions (BIOL540, McGill University)

Simberloff (2004)


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Importance of Marine Systems species:

  • Composed of many heavily invaded ecosystems

    • Estuaries

    • Rocky coasts

  • Important for economics yields

    • Fishing

    • Lobsters

    • Shellfish

  • Understudied


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    Biology and importance of European Green Crab ( species:C. maenas)

    • Economic damage by consuming:

    • Ecological damage by outcompeting, displacing: Native Crabs

    • Environmental tolerances to abiotic factors

      • Temperature: 22 to –1˚C

      • Salinity 54 to 4 ppt (great osmo-regulator)

    • Therefore due to its wide tolerances: Green crab is a generalist and an omnivore (eats almost anything!).


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    Green crab species: = Carcinus maenas

    • Native: Atlantic coasts of Europe

      • Europe and northern Africa

    • Invaded Areas: Australia, South Africa & both coasts of North America

    • Importance:

    • Fecundity 185,000 to 250,000 eggs each brood and more than 1 a year!

      • Long temporal record (187 years)

      • Discovered in 1817 in New Jersey

      • Lack of quantitative record and completeness

    http://cars.er.usgs.gov/posters/Nonindigenous/Nonindigenous_Crustaceans/nonindigenous_crustaceans.html


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    Biology of Hemigrapsus species:

    • Range:

      • Covers Portland, Maine to North Carolina and spreading!

      • Habitat: Rocky & cobblestone beaches

    • Invaded New Jersey in 1987

    • Short temporal but quantitative record

    • Fecundity: 50,000 eggs per brood

      • 4 to 5 broods in a single breeding season

    http://cars.er.usgs.gov/Nonindigenous_Species/Asian_shore_crab/asian_shore_crab.html


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    How did it get to all these places? species:

    • Unintentional Vectors:

      • Ballast water transport of larvae form

      • With live food trade of oysters and lobsters or bait

      • Research use

      • Released pets

      • Secondary dispersal by currents


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    Green Vs. Asian Crab Duration species:of Data .

    • Green crab has a longer temporal and spatial record but gaps in each

    • Asian shore crabs has shorter temporal record but less gaps

    • Together, they offer a chance to create the first marine specific model.

    www.calacademy.org/

    http://www.iisgcp.org/EXOTICSP/images/Japanese_shore_crab/hiraiso


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    Importance of the Project species:

    • Species spread is a central themes in invasion biology

    • Managing invasive species with scarce resources by prioritization.

    • Identify which areas are most at risk of becoming invaded

    • Early detection has been shown to increase chances of eradication of invasive species


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    Objectives species:

    • To forecast the spread of marine aquatic invaders

    • To determine the best approach to monitoring invasive species

    • To develop a long term volunteer monitoring network.


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    Questions species:

    • Is an invader absent in a location, or have we simply not observed it (in terms of probability)?

    • What is the effect of control (e.g., the removal of individuals) on the rate of spread?

    • How effective/reliable is a volunteer monitoring network?

    • Where will Hemigraspus spread?

    • What is the optimal monitoring strategy?

    • How sensitive is the spread model to life history parameters? To what extent can we extrapolate directly to other species (i.e., putting bounds on parameters)?


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    Current Modeling species:

    • Ecological forecasting has been done for terrestrial systems using:

    • Aquatic System: Yes for the fresh water aquatic invasive Zebra Mussels

    • Marine: Only applied terrestrial models that overestimate spread of MIS


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    General Methodology for Spread species:

    • To forecast invasions we will merge:

      • continuous spread models

      • discrete ecological spread models (human)

      • population dynamics

      • GIS

      • Oceanographic models (currents, temp, S)

    • Target organism expanded to any planktonically dispersed organisms

      • mollusks, fish, echinoderms, and other crustaceans


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    Current Models species:

    • Ecological forecasting has been done for terrestrial systems using:

      • Analytic models

        • reaction-diffusion

        • integro-difference models

      • Pro: Can characterize dispersal across the entire parameter space and often provide a simple metric of spread

      • Con: Do not account for spatial heterogeneity, local interactions, or stochasticity very well.

    • Individual based models that track the movement and dynamics of each individual

  • Aquatic System: Dreissena polymorpha

  • Marine: Only one attempt..


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    Marinve Vs. Terrestrial Spread Rates species:

    (Grosholz, 1996)


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    Become a Super Sleuth, We need your help! species:

    Please join the network at: www.invasivetracers.com

    http://www.sgnis.org/kids/index.html


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    Who is in the monitoring network? species:

    • The monitoring network will be constructed from volunteers across diverse groups, ranging from college and high school students to coastal communities:

      • MIT, Bowdoin College, College of the Atlantic

      • Elementary and High schools of many coastal states!

      • New England Aquarium’s Harbor Discoveries program, College of the Atlantic Summer camp

      • Acadia Institute of Oceanography

      • Schooner Sound Learning

      • The Nature Conservancy

      • Six communities volunteers around Salem Sound, MA


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    Participants of Pilot Program species:

    • Time: Commences spring of 2005

    • Duration: 2 to 5 years

    • Benefits:

      • To maximize the amount of human resources

      • To maximize the effectiveness of monitoring MIS

      • Volunteer based science a potential solution to the ever-decreasing funding availability


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    Model to Forecast Spread species:

    • To predict rate and direction

    • Components:

      • propagule pressure & discrete spread (Shipping Activity)

      • Abiotic conditions of the receiving environment

      • Population model

      • Continuous spread

    • Large fecundity so cannot use individual based models

    • Further, the consequences of currents and their inter-annual variability, environmental heterogeneity, density dependence, and stochasticity


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    Monitoring is so important! species:

    • Monitoring is composed of 2 components

      • Detection (a single crab)

      • Abundance

  • Best techniques for monitoring depend on objective, density of crabs in the area, and the scale of the area (a beach vs. a whole coast of New England).

  • That citizen scientists in a regional (even international) network can provide key information for invasive monitoring even in the face of limited funding.


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    Can you make a difference? species:

    • YES!!!

    • How?

    • Do not release your pets into the wild “Free Willy Syndrome”

      • Gold fish in every pond in North America

      • Lion fish in the Atlantic Coast of North America

      • Piranhas in the Great Lakes

      • Bunnies on Lovell’s Island, Boston Harbor

  • Help scientists detect invasive species in your ‘hood!

    • Early detection increases chance of eradication


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    Techniques for monitoring species:

    • Quadrat searches

      • How many crabs in a square area of PVC pipe

    • Transect Searches

      • Walk a vertical line and collect any crabs that you fine on that line.

      • Better for sites with low densities

      • Needle (Crab) in a Hay Stack (Beach)

    • Crab Traps

    http://www.dal.ca/~cstaicer/Images/marine2/pages/INTERTI&.htm

    http://www.oberlin.edu/Geopage/Images/Transect.JPG


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    To help you need to memorize: species:

    Asian Shore Crab

    • Asian shore crab have three teeth on each side of the eye and large claws.

    • European Green crabs have 5 teeth on each side of the eye.How many letter in the word "green"? 5.How many teeth on each side of the eye on a European green crab? 5.

    • The native crabs, jonah and rock crab, both have 9 teeth and grow larger than both the invasive crabs. So if the crab has more than 6 teeth on eachside of the eye the crab is native. These two crabs are very hard todifferentiate but that is OK because they are both native.

    European Green Crab


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    How do you tell if a crab is male or female? species:

    The male has a thinner abdomen that look looks like light house. The female has a wider and more circular one that help it hold in hundred of thousands of eggs. This rule works for other species of crabs!

    http://wdfw.wa.gov/fish/ans/greencrab.htm



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