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  1. Table of Contents • Demographics of Latin America 9.25 • Encomiendas 9.26 3. Gender Roles 9.27 4. African Slavery 9.28 5. Slave Life 10.1 6. Haitian Revolution 10.2 7. Brazilian and Mexican Independence 10.3 8. Simon Bolivar 10.9 9. Latifundios 10.10 10. Populism 10.11 11. Liberalism in Sao Paulo 10.15

  2. Liberalism in Sao Paolo ___10.15 liberalism: subsidies: Social Darwinism:

  3. SOCIAL EFFECTS of caudillos: • disenfranchisement (90% don’t own land  can’t vote) • lack of social mobility (poor ALWAYS remain poor  difficult to obtain wealth w/o land) • polarized society (rich get richer; poor get poorer) • corruption (society based on WHO you know, not WHAT you know)

  4. Liberalism • Philosophy emphasizing freedom and equality • Starts with the French Revolution Goals of Latin American liberals: • democratic elections • freedom of speech • reduce the power of the Catholic Church • abolition of slavery (in 1888 in Brazil)

  5. Subsidies • government money given to a business / group of people to help them survive/succeed. • Ex: US gov’t subsidizes solar power companies • Brazil’s gov’t in 1890: • Provided subsidies for Italian immigrants to come to Brazil. Why? • replace the labor of African slaves • fear that blacks would outnumber whites

  6. Social Darwinism • 19th century theory that some races are better adapted to succeed than others • “survival of the fittest”  do not help the poor/weak • eugenics: sterilization of “undesirable races” • used to justify racism, discrimination, etc.

  7. d

  8. Your Opponent (the incumbent) • GuilhermeDomingos • (governor for the last 12 years) • caudillo (general who was an instrumental leader of the Brazilian independence movement) •  patronage networks and populism • In favor of the status-quo.

  9. 1896 Election Campaign 1. Background reading (classwork today) 2. Powerpointpresentation (tomorrow) 3. Campaign poster (tomorrow / Wednesday)

  10. Classwork Assignment • You will be working in PARTNERS (unless you wish to work independently, in which case you will have to do everything on your own). • In your notebook, write down FOUR details summarizing each section of the reading. • If you divide up work with your partner, do NOT copy- at any point.

  11. Election Campaign Powerpoint • Create a PowerPoint presentation explaining the FOUR problems that Sao Paulo’s society faces. • Minimum  4 slides, 4 quotations/evidence from the reading • Should include images

  12. Problem #1: (Achievement Gap) • within the American public education system, minority students are significantly more likely to drop out of school than white students. • there is also a growing gulf between male / female achievement- there are now more women than men in college. • Evidence: “Over the long term, only about one half of male students from minority backgrounds graduate on time” (reading)

  13. Demographics of Sao Paulo Population of Sao Paulo: 80,000 50% white (Portuguese) 10% white (Italian, Irish) 20% mixed race (mestizos, mulattos) 10% African 10% Native American 55% female 45% male

  14. 1896 Election Voter Participation: 80% white (Portuguese) 12% mixed race 5% African 3% white (Italian, Irish) 89% male 11% female