soil formation and composition n.
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Soil Formation and Composition

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 18

Soil Formation and Composition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Soil Formation and Composition. Biotic (living) Abiotic (nonliving) . 1. Make a table and list 5 examples of each. Soil Formation. Soil is the loose, weathered material on Earth’s surface in which plants can grow. It is formed wherever bedrock is exposed.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Soil Formation and Composition' - aminia

Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
biotic living abiotic nonliving
Biotic (living) Abiotic(nonliving)

1. Make a table and list 5 examples of each

soil formation
Soil Formation
  • Soil is the loose, weathered material on Earth’s surface in which plants can grow. It is formed wherever bedrock is exposed.
  • Bedrock is the solid layer of rock beneath the soil. It weathers when it is exposed at the surface.
soil composition
Soil Composition

Soil is more than just weathered rock.

Soil is a mixture of rock particles, minerals, decayed organic materials, air, and water.

All soil is NOT the same - it depends on the bedrock that it was weathered from and the type of weathering.

The dead organic material is broken down by decomposers to form humus by decomposition.

Humus helps create spaces in soil for air and water.


Soil Formation and Composition

2. Draw the flowchart and fill it in as you go through it.

Water Oxygen

Acid Carbon dioxide

Living organisms

Wind Heat

Rain Cold





Smaller rock particles


Chemical weathering

Particles with different mineral make up

Mix with other materials on the surface


soil texture
Soil Texture

Soil texture depends on the size of the individual soil particles.

Soil particles range in size from gravel to clay particles too small to be seen by the unaided eye.

The sand, silt, and clay shown here have been enlarged.

soil texture and plant growth
Soil Texture and Plant Growth
  • Soil that is mostly clay is heavy and dense which allows them to hold a lot of water. Is this good? No, plants may “drown” from a lack of air.
  • Sandy soil has a coarse texture and water will drain quickly. Is this good? No, plants may die from a lack of water.
  • Loam - The perfect soil.
permeable is porous but porous may not be permeable
“Permeable” is “Porous,” but “Porous” May Not Be “Permeable”
  • A pore is a space in rock, soil, or sediment that is not occupied by mineral matter and that allows the passage or absorption of fluids.
  • The word comes from Latin porus, Greekporos, where it means “passage.” A thing that is porous is having pores, and porosity is the condition of being porous.

Permeability is a measure of the ease with which fluids will flow though a porous rock, sediment, or soil.

Although a rock may be highly porous, if the voids are not interconnected, then fluids within the closed, isolated pores cannot move.

Porosity is the ratio of the volume of openings (voids) to the total volume of material. Consists of the spaces between the grains

The larger the pore space or the greater their number, the higher the porosity.

The more tightly packed the grains are, the lower the porosity.

soil horizons
Soil Horizons

A soil horizon is a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it.

They form over long periods of time. Think centuries not decades.

It can take a hundred years for just a few centimeters of soil to form.

soil horizons c
Soil Horizons - C

The C horizon forms 1st as bedrock weathers and rock breaks up into soil particles.

soil horizons a topsoil
Soil Horizons - A - Topsoil

The A horizon

develops from theChorizon

when plant roots weather the rock mechanically and chemically.

Plants also add dark, organic material to the soil that is a mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals

soil horizons b subsoil
Soil Horizons - B - Subsoil

The B horizon develops as rainwater washes clay and minerals from the A horizon to the Bhorizon. Contains little humus.

rate of soil formation
Rate of Soil Formation
  • Depends on the climate and type of rock.
  • Occurs most rapidly in warm, wet climates.
  • Limestone weathers more quickly than granite in warm, wet climates.
soil horizons1
Soil Horizons

3. As the topsoil and subsoil develop, what happens to the bedrock?

4. Make a sketch of the three horizons and label each.

life in soil

The leaves, roots, and stems of plants are a major source of humus.

5. Which living things contribute most ofthe organic materials that form humus?

Life in Soil

6.How do decomposers contribute to the formation of soil?

7. What role do earthworms play in the formation of soil?

8. Which organisms break up hard, compacted soil and mix humus through it?

life in soil1
Life in Soil

Main Decomposers

Fungi - molds & mushrooms, grow on and digest plant remains

Bacteria - microscopic, attack dead organisms and their waste


Earthworms - mix humus to aerate the soil. They also eat soil and eliminate it as waste that are enriched in nutrients.

  • Fertile soil is rich in nutrients that plants need, such as nitrogen and phosphorus.
  • As plants shed leaves they form a loose layer of litter on the ground. Dead plants add to litter and over time decay to form humus.
  • Burrowing animals break up hard, compacted soil and add nitrogen when they excrete waste.

Soil Formation and Composition

9. Draw the flowchart in your notebook and fill in the blanks.

consists of

is made of

above the

is made of

above the

is made of

above the