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Islamic Golden Age. Philosophy, Science, and History. The Arab world was aware of Greek thought and had been in the process of translating and preserving these works for years. This becomes very important later on when this knowledge is rediscovered by Europe during The Renaissance.

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philosophy science and history
Philosophy, Science, and History
  • The Arab world was aware of Greek thought and had been in the process of translating and preserving these works for years. This becomes very important later on when this knowledge is rediscovered by Europe during The Renaissance.
  • The knowledge of the Muslim world was preserved in Baghdad in a library known as the House of Wisdom.
preservation of knowledge
Preservation of Knowledge
  • Muslim scholars helped to preserve the knowledge of Greece and Rome by translating works and making them available to other scholars.
    • It is because of this that European scholars were able to rediscover the works of Aristotle and other Greek philosophers.
    • In the twelfth century these works were translated into Latin .
    • The discovery of paper-making technology from China made this much easier.
astrolabe
Astrolabe
  • Muslims also studied astronomy which led to the development of the Astrolabe. This instrument was used for naval navigation by observing the positions of the stars and other heavenly bodies.
  • This invention made it possible for European sailors to sail to the Americas.
muslim medicine
Muslims again built on the Greek knowledge of medicine.

Public health in the Islamic world reached an astonishing height.

Physicians had to pass medical exams before they could practice, and they built hospitals in major cities

They had departments for quick treatment much like modern-day emergency rooms.

Physicians also made regular visits to outlying neighborhoods and even jails to treat ill patients.

Muslim Medicine
mathematics
Muslims got their foundation in math from studying Indian and Greek texts.

The Arabic number system was developed and spread throughout the Islamic empire and is used to this day. (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10)

One Muslim scholar also developed al-jabr (algebra) which literally means, “restoring what is missing”

Al-Khwarizmi

Mathematics
history
History
  • The Muslims historian Ibn-Khaldun lived in the 14th century.
  • This book, Introduction to History proposed a cyclical view of history with the rise and fall of civilizations.
literature
Literature
  • Many Muslims consider the Quran to be the greatest work of Muslim literature, but there was a strong oral tradition prior to the Quran which continued to have influence.
  • The poet Omar Khayyam. He was a twelfth century Persian poet, mathematician, and astronomer.
    • The wrote about many different themes and his poems were recorded by his friends after his death.
literature1
Literature
  • Probably the most famous piece of Muslim literature is the 1001 Nights or Arabian Nights.
  • This is a collection of stories based around a central theme.
    • The Sultan king of Baghdad wishes to kill his wife on their wedding night. The princess Scheherazade tells him stories each night to prevent her death, eventually winning him over.
    • The tales include the familiar stories of Aladdin and Ali Baba and the forty thieves.
art and architecture
Art and Architecture
  • Islamic art is a blend of Arab, Turkish, and Persian traditions.
  • Islamic art and architecture is guided by the Quran which forbids of representation of living beings. So mosques and palaces are decorated with floral motifs and geometric patterns (known as arabesque) and Arabic script.
the great mosque at samarra
The Great Mosque at Samarra

In present-day Iraq, it was the largest mosque at the time.

It covered 10 acres.

Most famous section is the minaret, or tower, it is from this tower that the Muezzin, or crier calls the faithful to prayer five times a day.

cordoba spain
Cordoba, Spain
  • Cordoba’s greatest years of glory were during the reign of the Islamic Empires.
  • It was during this period that the Great Mosque was built.
  • By the 10th century (900s CE) Cordoba was the largest and greatest city in Europe.
  • Córdoba boasted paved streets, a form of public lighting and luxurious villas with indoor plumbing.
great mosque of cordoba spain
Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain
  • Ninth-century mosque in southern Spain. Its hundreds of columns support horseshoe arches and make it seem like a forest of trees.
arabesque and calligraphy
Arabesque and Calligraphy
  • Since depictions of living things are forbidden many Mosques are decorated with Arabesque and Arabic Calligraphy.