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Caring For Trees. Julianne Schieffer Penn State Department of Ecosystem Science and Management. Reduce Maintenance Costs and Efforts. Choose quality plant material. Plan and design well - plant the right tree in the right place.

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Caring for trees
Caring For Trees

Julianne Schieffer

Penn State Department of

Ecosystem Science and Management


Reduce maintenance costs and efforts
Reduce Maintenance Costs and Efforts

Choose quality plant material.

Plan and design well - plant the right tree in the right place.

Provide care to young trees - correct planting, irrigation, and pruning.


Mulching
Mulching

3 – 3 - 3


Understanding tree biology
Understanding Tree Biology

Removing more than 25% live crown causes stress to the tree and a biological response to produce more leaves and

water sprouts.

Food is made in leaves and stored behind new buds - Photosynthesis


Terminal and lateral buds
Terminal and Lateral Buds

Growth regulating hormones (auxin) produced by apical meristem inhibit lateral growth.

Accounts for orderly branch development and spacing


Branch attachment
Branch Attachment

Branch Collar: an interweaving of branch wood followed by trunk wood (each year) that holds the branch in place; this is the reason that a large heavy branch can sway in the wind without falling off.


Branch collar
Branch Collar

Branch Collar


Branch protection zone
Branch Protection Zone

  • Branch Collar

  • Branch bark ridge

  • Branch protection zone

  • Dormant bud

  • Pith protection zone

  • Pith

2

1

3

4

5

6

Photo credit: Dr. Alex Shigo


Don t make flush cuts
Don’t Make Flush Cuts!

The trunk is now exposed

to decay and future structural problems.


Wound closure
Wound Closure

The branch collar forms wound-wood or callus to seal wounds and protect from infection.

Painting wounds does not prevent decay! Oil based paints even harm the tree.


Caring for trees

Good Tree Form

Central Leader

Strong/Wide Branch Unions


Caring for trees

Good Tree Form

Central Leader

Strong/Wide Branch Unions


Poor form co dominant stems
Poor Form - Co-Dominant Stems

Illustration: Dr. Alex Shigo

Included Bark

Photo: V. Cotrone



Topping
Topping

Reduction Pruning?

Pollarding?


When to prune
When to Prune?

  • Winter (Dormancy) is Best

  • Avoid Spring as leaves are emerging –tears bark, removes many leaves before they produce food.

  • Avoid Fall as leaves are coming off the tree - stimulates tender sprouting; decay spores present.

  • Prune Deadwood anytime

  • Spring Flowering – to maximize flowering, prune just after blossoms fall.

“Bleeding” doesn’t hurt trees – it is just sap!