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Lecture 19 Word Meanings II. CSCE 771 Natural Language Processing. Topics Description Logic III Overview of Meaning Readings: Text Chapter 189NLTK book Chapter 10. March 27, 2013. Overview. Last Time (Programming) Wordnet overview Today Computational Semantics

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lecture 19 word meanings ii
Lecture 19Word Meanings II

CSCE 771 Natural Language Processing

  • Topics
    • Description Logic III
    • Overview of Meaning
  • Readings:
      • Text Chapter 189NLTK book Chapter 10

March 27, 2013

  • Last Time (Programming)
    • Wordnet overview
  • Today
    • Computational Semantics
    • Feature based grammars
  • Readings:
    • Text 19
    • NLTK Book: Chapters 9 and 10
  • Next Time: Computational Lexical Semantics
hw review
HW review
  • Dropboxes
  • Soon to exist:
  • NER for handbook
  • Most synsets are connected to other synsets via a number of semantic relations. These relations vary based on the type of word, and include:
  • Nouns
    • hypernyms: Y is a hypernym of X if every X is a (kind of) Y (canine is a hypernym of dog) “superordinate” “superclass”
    • hyponyms: Y is a hyponym of X if every Y is a (kind of) X (dog is a hyponym of canine) “IS-A”
    • coordinate terms: Y is a coordinate term of X if X and Y share a hypernym (wolf is a coordinate term of dog, and dog is a coordinate term of wolf) “sibling”
    • holonym: Y is a holonym of X if X is a part of Y (building is a holonym of window) “HAS-PART”
    • meronym: Y is a meronym of X if Y is a part of X (window is a meronym of building) “IS-PART” “IS-MEMBER”




    • hypernym: the verb Y is a hypernym of the verb X if the activity X is a (kind of) Y (to perceive is an hypernym of to listen)
    • troponym: the verb Y is a troponym of the verb X if the activity Y is doing X in some manner (to lisp is a troponym of to talk)
    • entailment: the verb Y is entailed by X if by doing X you must be doing Y (to sleep is entailed by to snore)
    • coordinate terms: those verbs sharing a common hypernym (to lisp and to yell)
  • Adjectives
    • related nouns
    • similar to
    • participle of verb
  • Adverbs
    • root adjectives


word senses
Word senses
  • A word sense is a distinct meaning
  • Synonym sets are relations among word senses
  • couch/sofa, car/automobile
  • antonyms also
  • long/short, big/large, rise/fall
  • extremes; or opposite in direction
thematic roles
Thematic Roles
  • 19.19 “Sasha broke the window.”
  • exists e,x,y breaking(e) & breaker(e, Sasha) & brokenThing(e, y) & window(y)
  • 19.20 Pat opened the door.
  • Deep or thematic roles
  • Panini (Indian grammarian) circa 7th-4th century BC
  • Fillmore 1968, Gruber 1965
variations of expression
Variations of expression
  • John broke the window.
  • John broke the window with a rock.
  • The rock broke the window.
  • The window broke.
  • The window was broken by John.
case frames for verbs
Case Frames for verbs
  • Break
  • Agent: Subject, Theme:Object
  • Agent: Subject, Theme:Object, Instrument: PP-with
  • Instrument:Subject, Theme:Object
  • Theme: Subject
19 4 3 problems with thematic roles
19.4.3 Problems with Thematic Roles
  • Example 19.27
  • the cook opened the jar with the new gadget.
  • the new gadget opened the jar.
  • Example 19.28
  • Shelly ate the banana with a fork.
  • *The fork ate the banana.
prop bank
Prop Bank
  • PropBank is a corpus that is annotated with verbal propositions and their arguments—a "proposition bank".
  • http://verbs.colorado.edu/~mpalmer/projects/ace.html


propbank online
PropBank Online
  • http://verbs.colorado.edu/~mpalmer/projects/ace.html
framenet examples
FrameNet Examples
  • ... [Cook the boys] ... GRILL [Food their catches] [Heating_instrumenton an open fire].
  • [Avenger I] 'll GET EVEN [Offender with you] [Injury for this]!
  • [ Punishment This attack was conducted] [Support in] RETALIATION [ Injury for the U.S. bombing raid on Tripoli...
  • [Sleeper They] [Copula were] ASLEEP [Duration for hours]
figure 19 8 shank s conceptual dependencies
Figure 19.8 Shank’s Conceptual Dependencies
  • Roger Schank 1969  Professor at Yale


conceptual dependency
Conceptual Dependency
  • Governing Categories
  • PP – an actor or object corresponds to concrete nominal nouns
  • ACT – an action
  • LOC – a location of a conceptualization
  • T – time of a conceptualization
  • Assisting Categories
  • PA – attribute of a PP
  • AA – attribute of an ACT
  • Graphical representation


conceptual syntax rules
Conceptual syntax rules
  • Ref: ???
  • Elaine Rich’s
  • Text on AI


cd examples
CD Examples
  • John ran.
  • John is tall.
  • John is a doctor.
  • A nice boy.
  • John’s dog
  • John pushed the cart
  • John took the book from Mary
  • John drank milk
  • john fertilized the field
  • the plants grew
  • Bill shot Bob


cd for john at the egg
CD for “John at the egg.”
  • .


cd john prevented mary from giving the book to bill
CD “John prevented Mary from giving the book to Bill.”
  • .More tenses and modes
  • p past
  • f future
  • t transition
  • k continuing
  • c conditional
  • / negative
  • ? Interrogative
  • pil present


restaurant script
  • Roger Schank again
  • Collection of scenes describing typical events
  • e.g. “visit a restaurant”
  • Entering
  • Ordering
  • Eating
  • Paying/Leaving