Introduction to Business Planning
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Introduction to Business Planning. Content : Business Plan Overview Financial Plan. Business plan overview (1). The Three « C » to the Business Plan: CONCEPT CUSTOMERS CAPITAL. Business plan overview (2). CONCEPT What business are you in ? Why is it the right business for you to be in?

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Introduction to business planning

Introduction to Business Planning

  • Content:

    • Business Plan Overview

    • Financial Plan


Business plan overview 1
Business plan overview (1)

  • The Three « C » to the Business Plan:

    • CONCEPT

    • CUSTOMERS

    • CAPITAL


Business plan overview 2
Business plan overview (2)

  • CONCEPT

    • What business are you in ?

    • Why is it the right business for you to be in?

    • What would you like your business to be famous for?

    • What do you sell?

    • Why will people buy from you?

    • Who are your competitors?

    • How can you stand out from the crowd?


Business plan overview 3
Business plan overview (3)

  • CUSTOMERS

    • Who are (and will be) your customers?

    • What benefits do you (can you) provide them?

    • How many of them are there?

    • How many customers do you need?

    • What are their buying patterns?

    • Where do they currently buy?

    • How will they know about you?


Business plan overview 4
Business plan overview (4)

  • CAPITAL (or CASH)

    • How much capital do you need?

    • How can you maintain cash flow and liquidity?

    • How much working capital do you need?

    • What kind of budgets should you follow?

    • How can you control your finance?

    • How much growth can you afford?


Business plan overview 5
Business plan overview (5)

  • OUTLINE OF A BUSINESS PLAN (sample)

    • 0) Cover sheet and confidentiality agreement

    • 1) Executive summary- critical issues

    • 2) Company summary

    • 3) Services

    • 4) Market analysis summary

    • 5) Strategy and Implementation summary

    • 6) Management Summary

    • 7) Financial Plan


Business plan overview 6
Business plan overview (6)

  • WORKING GROUP SESSION (1 hour max)

  • You are know preparing your own business plan.

  • Try to define what kind of information,or documents you need for each item as presented in the previous slide :OUTLINE OF A BUSINESS PLAN (sample)


Financial plan 1
Financial plan (1)

  • It is now time to put all these hypotheses on a calculator to build a financial plan :

    • Constructing a financial plan does not require only technical competence.

    • Determining relevant hypotheses demands a sound professional judgment and a good knowledge of the business.


Financial plan 2
Financial plan (2)

  • 1) Financial assumptions

  • 2) Projected P&L

  • 3) Projected Balance Sheet

  • 4) Projected Cash Flow

  • 5) Key Valuation Measures

  • 6) Sensitivity Analysis


Financial plan 3
Financial plan (3)

  • 1)The Financial and Overall Assumptions

    • a) on Revenues : (P&L)

      • Tariff evolution

      • volume,…

    • b) on Costs : (P&L)

      • Price evolution

      • salary, ...

    • c) other (P&L, CF, BS)

      • interest rate

      • tax rate

      • ...


Financial plan 4
Financial plan (4)

  • Building a financial plan requires the construction over the project ’s life (usually from three to ten years) of :

    • a P / L,

    • a balance sheet,

    • and a cash flow statement.

  • You must know the general structure of those documents. The figures you use to fill in those documents derive from your assumptions about your business.


Financial plan 5
Financial plan (5)

  • A P / L (Profit and Loss statement or Income statement) lists all the revenues and the expenses generated by the project.

  • Revenues and expenses are classified according to their function (operating v.s non-operating; cost of revenue, SGA, depreciation, other).

  • Five key indicators: Gross Margin, EBITDA, Operating income, EBIT, NI.


Financial plan 6

This general framework can be adapted to take into account the specificities of your business.

Extraordinary expenses and revenues are excluded from this forecasted P / L due to their non predictable nature.

Financial plan (6)


Financial plan 7
Financial plan (7) the specificities of your business.

  • Projected Profit & Loss


Financial plan 8
Financial plan (8) the specificities of your business.

  • The BS presents on the one hand the assets necessary to carry out the project, and on the other hand, the origin of the funding (liabilities or equity - capital stock or retained earnings; internal versus external).


Financial plan 9
Financial plan (9) the specificities of your business.


Financial plan 10
Financial plan (10) the specificities of your business.

Projected Balance Sheet


Financial plan 11
Financial plan (11) the specificities of your business.

  • The projected cash flows is document that list year per year the sources of cash inflows and cash outflows :

    • operating activities

    • financing activities

    • investing activities

  • The cumulative external funding must be null or positive each year.


Financial plan 12
Financial plan (12) the specificities of your business.

Projected Cash Flows


Financial plan 13
Financial plan (13) the specificities of your business.

  • The P / L, the balance sheet and the projected cash flow statement are closely connected :

    • The issuance of debt has an impact on the BS (liabilities), on the PL (interest) and on the projected cash flow (new resources).

    • Think also about : dividend policy, sales cut, an increase in inventory prices,…

  • Constructing financial forecasts is a play - replay game.


Financial plan 14
Financial plan (14) the specificities of your business.

  • Constructing forecasted financial statement is helpful to evaluate:

    • the external funding required,

    • to have a quick view of the future business.

  • However, we are not yet able to answer the question: Is it worthwhile, on an economic point of view, to invest in this project ?

  • This is the objective of the next section.


Financial plan 15
Financial plan (15) the specificities of your business.

  • Key valuation measures

    • a first step requires to compute some relevant ratios on the projected financial statements:

      • Profitability : Gross margin, net profit, return on assets, return on equity...

      • Activity: Turnover growth, Collection Days,…

      • Debt ratios : Debt to Capital, Short term liabilities to Short term assets

      • Liquidity ratios: Current ratios, Cash flow to debt

      • other ratios

    • a temporal comparison, a benchmark with leading competitors or comparable firms should help to evaluate the global relevance of the business model.

    • A break even analysis must also be performed to test the sensitivity of the results to the macroeconomic conditions.


Financial plan 16
Financial plan (16) the specificities of your business.

  • Valuation method

    • The evaluation of any investment opportunity involves three discrete steps :

      • estimate the relevant cash flows

      • calculate a figure of merit for the investment

      • compare the figure of merit to an acceptance criterion.


Financial plan 17

Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Cash flow ($40)7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 17

Financial plan (17)

  • A figure of merit is a number summarizing an investment’s economic worth.

  • Imagine that you know the cash flows generated by a project.

  • How to transform this sequence in a single figure?


  • Financial plan 18

    7.5 7 8 9 10

    17

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    40

    Financial plan (18)


    Financial plan 19
    Financial plan (19) 7 8 9 10

    • The Net Present Value (NPV) principle:

      • How much would you like to earn in one year to lend me $ 100 today?

      • The equivalence principle.

      • Excel example.


    Financial plan 20
    Financial plan (20) 7 8 9 10

    • Sensitivity Analysis and Risk Analysis

      • OBJECTIVE : to check the impact of variances in assumptions which were used for the projected business plan.

      • METHODOLOGY : to analyse the most sensible parameters in the business such as price erosion, volume growth, Market share, capital expenditure (Capex) needs, …


    Financial plan 21
    Financial plan (21) 7 8 9 10

    • CONCLUSION

      • IT’s MORE THAN IMPORTANT TO TAKE TIME TO THINK THROUGH YOUR ASSUMPTIONS AND OBJECTIVES.

      • PLANNING IS THE KEY TO BUSINESS SUCCESS