Using an End In Mind Design Brevard’s Effective Strategies for Teaching Module 6
If you build it…. Let’s build a castle
Instructions given to Team A • Team A was given • the materials • a model • step-by-step directions for building their castle. • Additionally, we specified • there were materials to choose from (not all were required) • they could use extra materials to add their creative touch • they were being timed
Instructions given to Team B • Team B was given • the materials • directions to build the best castle they could • they were being timed
Which approach is… • …more effective on a consistent basis? • …balances direction with creativity? • …is more efficient?
Objectives • By the end of this module, we should be able to… • use an “end in mind” planning paradigm to align standards, curriculum, assessment and instructional practices.
What does “End in Mind” mean? “To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you’re going so that you better understand where you are now so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.” ~Stephen Covey, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, 1989, p. 9
Why should we use it? • Three of the five National Survey of Student Engagement “benchmarks” align with the principles of an “End in Mind” design. (Indiana University, 2001). • “End in Mind” design represents a synthesis of research-based best practices that are associated with improving student achievement (Brown, 2004).
Where we should spend our time Keep in Mind! The “Designing Assessment” section should be where the bulk of our materials preparation time is spent, as this is where students are practicing and we are using formative assessment to guide our teaching.
Step One Desired Results
Please take out the “End in Mind” Instructional Planning Tool.
The Established Goal(s) What is the state standard for the instructional plan? A plan could be for a concept, a topic, a theme, a week-long lesson, etc.
“Students will understand that…” • What is the rationale behind the standard? • Why do they have to know it? • How does it apply? • So what?
“Students will know…” • What are the general • Concepts • Skills • Information • Abilities they should gain from the learning experience?
“Students will be able to…” • SMART goals • Specific • Measurable • Attainable • Realistic • Time-bound • What they will do to show you they have met the standard?
Purpose of essential questions • Spark interest • Build connections • Activate background knowledge • Identify areas of interest • Plant seeds for future learning
What is an essential question? According to Wiggins & McTighe (2005, p. 342), “a question the lies at the heart of a subject…and promotes inquiry…. Essential questions thus do not yield a single straightforward answer…but produce different plausible responses, about which thoughtful people may disagree.”
Examples from science • “How is a leaf like your hand?” • “What should be the limits of scientific discovery?” • “Is scientific discovery always progress?”
Examples from mathematics • “How is addition and subtraction related?” • “How do we use numbers?” • “Is a straight line always the shortest possible distance?”
Examples from social studies • What is fairness? • Where do we live? • Is honesty the best policy? • Was Jefferson a hypocrite? • How should resources be divided? (Are you willing to give up some of yours to make things even?)
Examples from English Language Arts • Literature: What makes a friend? Who are our heroes? • What makes writing worth reading? • What does it mean to be literate in the 21st century?
Examples from fine arts • What is music? • What makes for good art? • What are the limits on artistic expression?
Examples from Careers and Technology • Culinary: “Does food that is good for you have to taste bad?” • Business: “Can a business be 100% ethical and successful?” • Technology: “Should we be able to freely share files, such as music, movies, etc., on the internet?” • Family & Consumer Science:
An Essential Question should… • …be framed for maximal simplicity. • …be worded in student-friendly language. • …provoke discussion. • …point toward the larger essential idea and unit questions. (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998, p. 34)
It’s your turn… …so get curious! At your table, choose two subjects (math, science, etc.) and generate as many essential questions as you can in the next four minutes.
Step Two Assessment Evidence, or ~how do you know they know?~
Evidence = Assessment • Formative • Summative INSERT KEY POINTS FROM MODULE 4
Assessment drives Instruction • Assessment pieces must be designed BEFORE learning activities • The assessment pieces we design inform us of the instructional activities we need to plan
Step Two in Action How will we know that you understand the “End in Mind” design?
You will apply your learning! (Of course!) • Individually, as a table, in grade level team, etc. (your choice), you will draft part of an End in Design Instructional Planning Tool • But first, don’t you want to know what’s expected from you?
One approach -- GRASPS • Goal • Role • Audience • Situation • Product, Performance, Purpose • Standards for Success (Wiggins & McTighe, 2007).
Goal • GOAL: Your task is to create a draft “end in mind” instructional plan for your classroom/school.
Role • ROLE: You are a classroom teacher, administrator, etc. – whatever your actual role is.
Audience • AUDIENCE: Your target audience is your class of students or your faculty or small group.